From Big Medical Encyclopedia


TAL — the medical institution of wartime intended for treatment struck and patients as a part of hospital bases of front and rear areas. In the period of the Great Patriotic War E. in some cases were a part of hospital bases of armies.

Proobrazokhm modern E. are created in 60 — the 70th there are 19 century military and time hospital, not provided with vehicles, so-called «bezobozny hospital». In 1910 hospital, intended for treatment of wounded and patients outside the battlefield, received the name evacuation (see Hospital military).

In days of the Great Patriotic War E. had the capacity from 200 to 2000 beds. They were developed preferential in the settlements having sufficient housing stock. Used public buildings, schools and other capacious rooms more often. AA. had no transport for movement in this connection their transportation was, as a rule, carried out by the railroads, waterways or on specially allocated cars.

AA. were developed by groups as a part of 10 — 15 hospitals. In total such group located in one or adjacently located settlements, represented the hospital collector directed by task force of the evacuation center (see. Evacuation point). Everyone E. it was profiled so that in total the hospital collector was capable to carry out all types of specialized medical care (see). AA. had the following profiles: neurosurgical, thoracoabdominal, femoral and joint, for treatment wounded in extremities, therapeutic, psychoneurological, infectious, etc. Organizational and regular structure E. was rather unified and provided in its structure: management, including the party and political device, a medical part, a reception sorting room, several medical departments, and also radiological, dental, laboratory, physiotherapeutic and physiotherapy exercises of department. AA. had warehouses, a drugstore, transport, the kitchen-dining room and means of communication, necessary for material support. Scheme of expansion and organization of work E. depended on its specialization and specific objectives.

In group E. the also sorting evacuation hospital (SEH) developed on railway, water or air tracks of evacuation with a task of the organization of reception, medical sorting (see Sorting medical), the distributions arriving struck and patients between specialized hospitals of this hospital collector, and also the organization of their further evacuation (see joined. Sorting hospital). On a number of fronts as a part of a hospital collector the control and evacuation hospital (CEH) intended for the organization of evacuation struck and patients from these collectors, control of correctness of selection in EG of the contingents which are subject to evacuation out of borders of the front, completeness of their preparation for evacuation, efficiency of the previous treatment were developed (see Evacuation medical). Therefore, activity of KEG was directed also to improvement of le-chebno-diagnostic activity of hospital collectors, to-rykh it was a part, its bed fund was used not only for temporary placement evacuated, but also as a reserve of beds in this collector.

On subordination E. were subdivided on Narkomat's hospital of defense, Narkomata of health care and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions.

Bibliography: Health care in days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, under the editorship of M. I. Barsukov and D. D. Kuvshin-sky, M., 1977; L and d about in And, the Item. Bases of medical and evacuation providing the Soviet Army, in book: Bases of the organization of medical providing troops, under the editorship of N. I. Zavalishin, page 44, M., 1961; The Guide to the organization of work in evacuation hospitals, M. — L., 1941; Public health service of the Russian army in war of 1914 — 1917, sost. I. S. Nazin, etc., page 39, etc., Kuibyshev, 1942; About the world N about in E. PI. War and military medicine, 1939 — 1945, page 66, 196, M., 1979; Encyclopaedic dictionary of military medicine, t. 3, Art. J4, t. 5, Art. 1099, M.,

1948. O. S. Shevtsov.