From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ETUOTER Wilbur (Atwater Wilbur Olin, 1844 — 1907) is the American chemist and the physiologist, one of founders of studying of a metabolism and energy in a human body.

An education was got in high fur boots of Vermont and by the Weight of leu, continued it

in Yale un-those; doctor of philosophy (1869). (1869 — 1871) spent several years in Germany where he got acquainted with work of the experimental stations applying chemical fertilizers in agriculture. Upon return to the USA continued training in high fur boots of Tennessee and Main. From 1873 to 1907 professor of chemistry in the Oar ysky un-those. Visit in 1887 of K. Foyt's laboratory in Munich and acquaintance to M. Rubner attracted interest in a physiological calorimetry of U. Etuoter. Having returned to the USA, it together with professor of physics of Vesleysky un-that Roza (E. Century of Rosa) created a calorimeter for studying of exchange processes of the person, known as Etuoter's calorimeter — Roza. This installation represented the heat-insulated, ventilated camera, in a cut of people could take place and work freely. The generated heat was determined by temperature difference of the water proceeding through system of tubes before passing through a calorimeter. At. Etuoter proved that the law of energy conservation is completely applicable to the person: the amount

of heat produced by an individual equals to amount of heat, a cut is distinguished at oxidation of food eaten by it. Other important result of calorimetric researches of U. Etuoter was development of tables of caloric value of feedstuffs (1896). U. Etuoter studied also dependence between a diet, power of work and health of the person. Along with fiziol. U. Etuoter continued to work with researches actively in the field of agrochemistry. In 1888 on its initiative at Department of agriculture of the USA the department of experimental stations was created, the director to-rogo it became.

U. Etuoter's works in the field of physiology of food gained recognition in Europe. Its works were transferred to Russian, French, Swedish and other languages.

Works: The chemistry of foods, Hartford,

1885; Methods and results of investigations on the chemistry and economy of food, Washington, 1895; Food and diet,

Charts 1 — 4, Baltimore, 1896; Description of a new respiration calorimeter and experiments on the conservation of energy in the human body, Washington, 1899 (sovm. with Rosa E.B.); Principles of nutrition and nutritive value of food, Washington, 1902; Experiments on the metabolism of matter and energy in the human body, 1900 — 1902, Washington, 1903 (sovm. with other).


The Encyclopedia ameri-cana, v. 2, p. 528, N. Y. — Chicago, 1949.

V. G. Zilov.