ETHIOPIA, Socialist Ethiopia — the state in Northeast Africa. Borders on 3. with Sudan, on Yu. with Kenya, on Yu.-V. from Somalia, on V. it is washed by the Red Sea. The area is 1221,9 thousand sq.km. Population of 42,0 million people (census of 1984). The capital — Addis Ababa (apprx. 1,5 million zhit.,
1984). Ofits. language — Amharic (amarinye). In the administrative relation E. it is divided into 14 provinces.
At the beginning of our era in the territory of Northern Ethiopia the slaveholding state Axum was formed, a cut in 13 — 14 centuries it was shattered into independent principalities. In 16 century E. repeatedly was attacked from Turks. Fight against overseas invasion promoted consolidation of the Ethiopian state. In 19 century the people E tried to enslave a number of the European states (Great Britain, France, Italy) more than once. At the end of 1867 Great Britain launched war against E., in 70 — the 80th there are 19 century E. it was involved in war with Egypt and Sudan. Easing E. as a result of wars Italy used, edges occupied a number of regions of Northern Ethiopia and in 1895 undertook against E. aggressive war. However in 1896 at Adua Italy got beaten in fight and recognized independence E. In 1931 in E. the first constitution was adopted, edges prohibited slavery, but kept the power of the emperor as absolute monarch. In 1935 Italy launched war against E again., edges lasted till 1941. The English troops which were involved in war against Italy were disengaged from the country only in 1954. At the beginning of the 70th fight against the existing reactionary system escalated. In 1974 in E. anti-feudal, anti-imperialist revolution began, edges developed into national and democratic later. On September 12, 1974 the power passed to Temporary military administrative council (In ASSORTED) and the Temporary military government. G of the beginning of 1975 in Ethiopia are carried out progressive social and economic transformations. The head of state — the chairman of VVAS.
Climate on S. and V. of Ethiopia tropical desert and semidesertic, in other districts of the country hot and seasonal and wet. The most rainy months July, August, September. Average air temperature 16 — 26 °.
AA. — the agrarian country, in agriculture it is engaged apprx. 90% of the amateur population. The leading place in commodity agriculture is taken by export cultures — coffee, oily, wheat, corn. Pages are grown up - x. products for internal consumption. The industry is presented generally textile, food and some other the industries of manufacturing industry. There are enterprises for production of cement and the metalworking enterprises, and also the oil refinery built in 1967 with assistance of the USSR in Assab. A subsoil of the country is studied a little. Gold, platinum, manganese ore, potassium salt are extracted. About 500 million Siberian salmons • h the electric power are annually produced.
The population of the country is presented generally by nationalities of Amhara, the Gaul, Tigran.
Vital rates in 1985: birth rate 49,2, the general mortality 21,7, a natural increase 27,5 for 1000 of the population; child mortality 145,0 on 1000 live-born.
In pathology the leading place is taken by infectious and parasitic diseases. From gastrointestinal infections in 1980 37806 cases of protozoan intestinal infections, 2434 cases of a typhoid and a paratyphoid, 3128 cases of a viral hepatitis are registered. In the country of races -
Hospital of the Soviet Red Cross in Addis Ababa.
prostranena children's infectious diseases; in 1980 7272 cases of whooping cough, 6438 measles, 75 — poliomyelitis, 29 — chicken pox, 142 — diphtherias, 4002 — a meningococcal infection, 2243 — a sapropyra, 1686 — a garapata disease, 209 — tetanus were registered. For fight with inf. diseases since 1979 under the auspices of WHO in the country carry out the expanded programme of immunization of the population.
The health service is headed by the Ministry of Health. The structure of the ministry includes medical, sanitary and epidemiologic departments, department of scientific planning and researches, etc. At the Ministry of Health the General advisory department functions, in to-ry representatives of public institutions, un-that and workers of practical health care enter. Departments of health care of provinces are headed by the doctors who specially received preparation on the organization and management of health care. All medical institutions of the province are subordinated to them.
In 1980 in Ethiopia there were 86 medical institutions on
11 147 beds (3,0 on 10 000 population), from them 76 institutions on 10 411 beds were under authority of the state. Total number of medical institutions included 28 BCs of the general profile (on 5838 beds), 42 local or rural-tsy (3262 beds), 2 maternity homes (on 100 beds), 2 children's hospitals (on 190 beds), 1 eye (on 110 beds), 3 tubercular (on 472 beds), 2 psychiatric (on 610 beds), 5 BCs for treatment of patients with a leprosy (on 500 beds) and other specialized (1-tsa on 65 beds).
The population of the country receives the extra hospital help in the centers and points of health care; the last are organized mainly in rural areas. In 1977 106 centers and 1010 points of health care functioned. The personnel of point of health care consist of
2 assistants to the nurse and 1 technical worker, and the center of health care — of 1 medical assistant,
2 nurses and 1 technical worker. Points of health care service apprx. 5 thousand population, and the centers of health care are created in districts with the population not less than 50 thousand people. The centers of health care have a small amount of hospital beds (10 — 15) and laboratory. Name and content of work of healthcare institutions E. not completely corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).
In 1980 in the country 428 doctors (0,14 for 10 000 population), 215 medical assistants, 16 dentists, 93 druggists, 85 assistants to druggists, 1588 nurses, the 5959th other paramedical staff, 368 technicians-laboratory assistants, 136 rents-geno of laboratory assistants, 3 diplomaed sanitary workers, 264 hospital attendants, the 3650th other personnel of health care worked.
Preparation of medical shots is carried out at 2 medical faculties of universities in Addis Ababa and Gondar. Training is free, the Ethiopian students get a grant. Training of paramedical staff is carried out in 7 sisterly medical schools, 2 schools for technicians-laboratory assistants, 1 school for rengeno-technicians, 1 school for pharmacists and 8 schools for assistants to doctors.
Five institutions in the country conduct medicobiological researches and researches in the field of medicine. It is the Central laboratory and research institute, in-you food and pathology, Research in-t of Armeue-r Gansen, the Ethiopian pediatric clinic.
The Soviet Union faithful to the principle of proletarian internationalism one of the first recognized sovereignty E. also came to the rescue of it. Considerably participation of the USSR in development of a health system in E. V to the country works numerous group of the Soviet specialists. The Soviet Union gives big help in preparation of national medical shots.
Bibliography: Kosarev I. I., Hro
of A. S's m. and Yunovidov I.] Vt, Medical and sanitary state and medical education in Ethiopia, M., 1981; The Countries and the people, Africa, East and South Africa, under the editorship of Yu. V. Bromley, etc., page 19, M., 1981; The Sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 90, Geneva, WHO, 1981; World directory of medical schools, p. 94, Geneva, 1979; World health statistics annual 1985, Geneva, 1985.
V. S. Makhlina.