ESTHESIOLOGY

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ESTHESIOLOGY (Greek aisthesis feeling, feeling + logos a concept, the doctrine) — the section of anatomy and physiology studying development of sense bodys in phylogeny and ontogenesis, their structure, topography and functions. Sense bodys (see) represent the morfofunktsionalny educations which are fiziol. a basis of emergence of feelings (see). Distinguish five sense bodys: the organ of sight providing perception of light and color feelings; preddverno-ulitko-vy the body perceiving sound irritations, and also information on orientation of a body in space; olfactor organ responsible for perception of smells; the organ of taste perceiving flavoring feelings; the organ of touch (skin) perceiving painful, temperature and tactile (tactile) feelings.

The first ideas of a structure and function of sense bodys are available in Hippocrates and Aristotle's works. Galen in the book «About Purpose of Parts of a Human Body» described a structure of an eye and created the first theory of emergence of visual objects — the so-called theory of an emanation. According to representations of the Arab philosopher of 10 century of Ibn-al-Haysama (Algazen), light-sensitive department of an eye is the crystalline lens. These representations were divided by Ibn-Xing. In the work «Canon of Medical Science» he considers a nose as an olfactor organ, describes a structure of an ear, states the theory of perception of a sound. For the first time all five sense bodys (sense of smell, sight, hearing, taste and touch) were described by A. Veza-ly. For 16 — 18 centuries details of a structure of sense bodys were open. Colombo (R. Colombo) described a structure of acoustical stones of a middle ear, B. Evstakhy — a structure of an inner ear, an acoustical pipe and muscles of a drum cavity, A. Kor-ti — spiral body of a snail, H. Fabricius — a structure of an iris of an eye, F. Ryuysh — blood vessels of an eye, J. G. Zinn — a ciliary body. In

19 century the structure of sense bodys was studied on gistol. level, their innervation was investigated. The sensory physiology long time was considered as a component of appropriate sections of physics (optics and acoustics). So, nek-ry physical properties of organs of sight and hearing were described by R. Descartes, J. Kepler. M. V. Lomonosov (1756) introduced the idea that the color sensation is connected with function of flasks of a retina of an eye. It for the first time put forward the theory of ternary color sight which gained further development in J. Young's works. G. Helmholtz described the mechanism of accommodation of an eye and created the resonant theory of perception of sounds. I. P. Pavlov's doctrine about analyzers (see) which explained the nature and origins of feelings from materialistic positions gave new approach to a research of sensory physiology. In 20 century wide use of methods of an electrophysiology (see), a submicroscopy (see), a cytohistochemistry (see the Histochemistry, Cytochemistry) promoted studying of fine structure and mechanisms of functioning of sense bodys: the morphology of an organ of taste, a structure of spiral body of a snail and an olfactor organ on tsitogistol were described. level; the English neurophysiologist E. Adrian investigated physiology of the olfactory analyzer. Further researches of sense bodys promoted improvement of special sections of medicine, napr, ophthalmology (see), otorhinolaryngology (see).

In a crust, time the term «esthesiology» in physiology is used seldom.

In medical higher education institutions E. enters a course of anatomy. Data

on a structure and development of sense bodys are presented in textbooks of anatomy by the independent section.

Bibliography: Bronstein A. I. Taste and sense of smell, M. — JI., 1950; Vinnikov Ya. A. and Titova JI. K. Morfologiya of an olfactor organ, M., 1957; they e, Kortiyev body, M. — L., 1961;

Helmholtz G. L. F. The doctrine about acoustical feelings as a physiological basis for the theory of music, the lane with it., SPb., 1875; Lazarev P. P. Researches on the ionic theory of excitement, t. 1, p.1, M., 1916; At

M. G. weight, Lysenko in N. K. and Bushkovich V. I. Anthropotomy, M., 1985; Rock I. and Harris Ch. Sight and touch, in book: Perception, Mechanisms and models, the lane with English, under the editorship of N. Yu. Alekseenko, page 275, M., 1974; Corti A. Recherches sur l’organe de Poui'e des mammiffcres, Lpz., 1851; Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, hrsg. v. H. Fer-ner u. J. Staubesand, Bd 3, S. 376, Miin-chen u. a., 1979. F. V. Sudzilovsky.

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