From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ESQUIROL Jean (Esquirol Jean Etienne Dominique, 1772 — 1840) is the French psychiatrist, one of founders of public, scientific and clinical psychiatry, F. Pinel's pupil.

H flax of the French National academy of medicine (1820), Swedish academy of Sciences (1834), honorary member of the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences (1838). Got a medical education in high fur boots of Toulouse and Montpellier. Bisetr (1796 — 1811) and Salpetriyer worked as the doctor in insane hospitals (1811 — 1825). From 1825 to the last days lives was the chief physician of hospital Sha-ranton near Paris.

Zh. Eskirol extended the reforms in the field of hospital psychiatry which are carried out F. Ping by l I eat in Paris, on psychiatric-tsy France. Would develop the project psychiatric the new type close to modern, its medical regime, a control system, the rights and duties of doctors and the servicing medical staff; entered into practice maintaining case histories, regular rounds, and also labor therapy as a method of treatment not only in-tsakh, but also in specially created labor colonies. It developed the principles of so-called posemeyny contempt chronic mentally sick, been a prototype of modern forms of patronage of mentally sick. Zh. Eskirol drafted the first-ever legislation on mentally sick — «The law of June 30, 1838» (see Psychiatry).

Zh. Eskirol put forward the new principles of studying of mental diseases based on the analysis of symptoms inherent to this disease, definition of an etiology, the exact description of its current and an outcome, statement of questions of therapy, value of a pathoanatomical research of a brain and internals. It laid the foundation of psychopathology (see Psychopathology), the first definition and the description of hallucinations is given (see) and illusions (see), and also differentiation of these frustration is carried out. One of the first it described disturbances of the speech at a general paralysis (see), mental anesthesia, dysphorias at patients with epilepsy, entered concepts of remission and an interremissiya at mental diseases. It possesses the early statistical studies in psychiatry.

Zh. Eskirol since 1817 gave a systematic course of lectures on psychiatry. Among pupils of Zh. Eski-rol there is Zh. Faljre, B. Morel, J. G. F. Baillarger, JIacer is (E. Ch. Lasegue), etc.

Zh. Eskirol's activity, as well as activity of his teacher F. Pinelya, not only predetermined ways of development of the French psychiatry, but also exerted a great influence on psychiatric researches far outside France.

Works: Des passions considerees comme causes sympt6mes et moyens curatifs de 1*alienation mentale, P., 1805; Des etablisse-ments des alienes en France et des moyens d’ameiiorer le sort de ces infortunes, MSmoire, P., 1819; Alienation mentale, Des illusions chez les alienes, Question medico-legale sur Pisolement des alienes, P., 1832; Des maladies mentales considers sous les rapports medical, hygienique et medicolegal, t. 1—2, P., 1838.

Bibliography: Cannes by Yu. V.,

History of psychiatry, page 169, JI., 1928;

Shumsky N. G. Jean Etienne Dominique Eskirol (To the 200 anniversary since birth), Zhurn. neuropath, and psikhiat., t. 72, century 2, page 281, 1972; Danner L. Stude sur Esquirol, son influence sur la marche de la pathologie mentale, P., 1858.

H. G. Shumsky.