ESMARH Friedrich (Esmarch Johann Friedrich August, 1823 — 1908) is the German surgeon.
Got a medical education in the Nile and Goettingen high fur boots. Served as the military surgeon. Then worked as B. Langenbek's assistant in a hirurgicha to sky clinic Nile un-that, and from 1857 to 1899 directed this clinic. During the French-pr at with with to about y
wars (1870 — 1871) was the chief medical inspector and the hi-rurgom-consultant of Prussian army.
Scientific practical activities of F. Esmarkh were devoted to a wide range of problems of surgery. He developed (1873) a method of reduction of blood loss at the extremity operations exsanguinated by imposing of the styptic plait invented by it (see the Plait, styptic, Esmarkh desalination); offered an original way of an exarticulation of a shoulder; method of closing of outside fistula of a stomach; studied problems of anesthesia, including a chloroformic anesthesia. Many works of F. Esmarkh are devoted to questions of field surgery. He showed advantages of the sparing operative measures at fire fractures of extremities (a resection, an arthrotomy) before widely applied radical methods (amputation) that led to decrease in number of lethal outcomes and preservation of working capacity. F. Es-markh played for the rational organization of the help to wounded, including with involvement of the civilian population. Offered the transport tire for an immobilization of extremities, a knife for cutting of plaster bandages, to a circle for enemas and syringings, scissors for cutting of bandages on wounds.
ESSENCES 345 F. Esmarkh was one of founders and the honorary member of German about-va surgeons.
Works: Der erste Verband auf dem Schlacht-felde, Kiel, 1869; Ueber kiinstliche Blutleere bei Operationen, Samml. klin. Vortr., N. 58 (Chir., N. 19), S. 373, 1873; Handbuch der kriegschirurgischen Technik, Hannover, 1877; Uber ganz blutlose Operationen, B., 1880; Regeln fiir die Cloroformnarkose, Kiel, 1884; t)ber eine Modification des Ko-chschen Plattenverfahrens zur Isolierung und zum quantitativen Nachweis von Mikro-organismen, Z. Hig. Infekt. - Kr., Bd 1, S. 293, 1886.
Bibliography: Bier A.
Friedrich von Esmarch, Dtsch. med. Wschr., S. 558, 1908; Waitz H. Friedrich U. Esmarch, Miinch. med. Wschr., S. 803, 1908. M. B. Mirsky.