ERLANGER Joseph (Erlanger Joseph, 1874 — 1965) is the American physiologist, one of founders of an electrophysiology, the Nobel Prize laureate (1944).
In 1895 ended Californian un-t, the doctor of medicine (1899). In 1900 — 1906 professor, the head of department of physiology un-that the State of Wisconsin, from 1910 to 1948 professor and the head of department of physiology of university of Washington in St. Louis worked in un-those John Hopkins, from 1906 to 1910 (State of Missouri). Since 1948 was honored professor in resignation.
The main works of J. Erlanger are devoted to a research of the bioelectric phenomena in nervous tissue. J. Erlanger the first used the cathode oscillograph for studying of transfer of bioelectric impulses in nerve fibrils and together with G. Gasser developed original methods of registration of impulses. They created classification of nerve fibrils of mammals, various speed of carrying out excitement is the basis a cut, and also the law of direct proportionality of speed of carrying out nervous impulse from diameter of nerve fibril is formulated. J. Erlanger made also big contribution to cardiovascular physiology, having investigated the nature of a heart block and having applied the anemic methods of registration of the ABP and the movement of blood developed by it in heart.
J. Erlanger was the doctor of science of a number of universities of the USA and university in Paris, honourable doctor Svobodny un-that in Brussels. He was elected the member and the president American physiological
about-va, was a member of National academy of Sciences of the USA, American philosophical about-va, the American association of physicists, Ob-va of experimental biology and medicine, Ob-va Filomafitskogo (Paris).
The Nobel Prize is conferred for electrophysiologic researches of nerve fibrils of mammals (together with G. Gasser).
Works: A study of the action currents of nerve with the cathode ray oscillograph, Amer. J. Physiol., v. 62, p. 496, 1922 (sovm.
with Gasser H. S.); The compound nature of action current of nerve as disclosed by the cathode ray oscillograph, ibid., v. 70, p. 624, 1924 (sovm. with Gasser H, S.); R61e played by sizes of constituent fibers of nerve trunk in determining form of its action potential wave, ibid., v. 80, p. 522, 1927 (sovm. with Gasser H. S.); Electrical signs of nervous activity, Philadelphia a. o., 1937 (sovm. with Gasser H. S.).
Bibliography: Meyers Neues Lexicon,
Bd 4, S. 350, Lpz., 1972; Salvag-g i about S. Diccionario biografico de premios Nobel, p. 170, Buenos Aires, 1958.
Yu. A. Fadeyev.