ERISMAN Fedor Fedorovich (a real name — Guldrejch Friedrich; Erismann Huldreich Friedrich, 1842 — 1915) — the domestic hygienist, one of founders of scientific hygiene and public medicine in Russia.
By origin Swiss. Ended medical f-t Zurich un-that (1865). Specialized as the doctor-oculist. In 1867 protected dokt. thesis. Under the influence of the representatives of the Russian revolutionary emigration living in Switzerland, and also the former member of society «Earth and Will» of N. P. Suslova began to study social sciences. In 1870 — 1874 the member of the Zurich section of the International partnership of workers (the I International).
In 1869 F. F. Erisman moved to Russia. Worked as the oculist. On the basis of inspection of sight of pupils of the St. Petersburg gymnasiums drew a conclusion on influence of the school equipment on developing of short-sightedness at them. These researches attracted of F. F. Erisman interest in wider a dignity. - a gigabyte. to problems. Results of inspection dignity. the condition of dosshouse houses and basement dwellings in St. Petersburg which is carried out by him in 1871 were published in the «Archive of Forensic Medicine and Public Hygiene» magazine.
In 1872 — 1877 F. F. Erisman improved the knowledge. He studied chemistry in Zurich, worked in Hygienic in-those Munich under the leadership of M. Pettenkofer and K. Foyt, executed a number of pilot studies on utility hygiene. In the same years he created «The management to hygiene», one of sections to-rogo («
Profes-Pamyatnik of F. F. To Erisman, established in front of the sanitary and hygienic case of the 1st Moscow Order of Lenin and award of the Labour Red Banner of medical institute of I. M. Sechenov.
sionalny hygiene or hygiene of intellectual and physical work») left in 1877 the separate edition. This book is written under direct influence of «Capital» of K. Marx. In 1878 in St. Petersburg there was one more book of F. F. Erisman — «Public hygiene».
F. F. Erisman's activity as the vice-chairman of the commission of the Red Cross on improvement of Bulgaria (the European theater of the Russian-Turkish war of 1877 — 1878) in many respects promoted suspension of distribution of epidemic of a sapropyra raging at the front to the back, first of all to Russia (see. Health service of Armed Forces of the USSR).
In 1879 at the initiative of the secretary of the Moscow provincial sanitary commission E. A. Osipov F. F. Erisman was invited to Moscow for participation in a dignity. inspection of the industrial enterprises of the Moscow province. For 7 years with its direct participation huge work, results a cut was carried out were generalized in a series of releases of «Collections of statistical data on the Moscow province». In these collections a detailed information about working conditions and life of workers, their food, data of anthropological inspections etc. is collected.
In 1885 F. F. Erisman became one of the first four health officers of the Moscow provincial zemstvo where together with E. A. Osipov he was engaged in creation a dignity. the organizations in a zemstvo.
In 1882 F. F. Erisman was awarded with «honoris causa» of an academic degree of the doctor of medicine and received a position of the associate professor, and then professor of department of hygiene Moscow un-that. With its next participation
the project of new clinics on the Maiden field in Moscow was developed (nowadays the 1st MMI of I. M. Sechenov). Under its management here in 1890 it was open Hygienic for in-t, and at it the sanitary station for a research of foodstuff of marketing in Moscow is created (1891). F. F. Erisman promoted revival of activity Moscow hygienic about-va which he headed in 1892 F. F. Erisman presided over the V—XIII
congresses of doctors of the Moscow province, was an active participant and the head of a number of Pirogovsky congresses (see), since the first (1885).
In 1896 in connection with participation in the petition of group of professors Moscow un-that before the governor general about mitigation of a fate of the students arrested by police F. F. Erisman was dismissed from service «without explanation of» and lodged in Switzerland, openly entered the countries Social Democratic Party, was elected in the Zurich city magistrate. F. F. Erisman possessed an initiative of creation in Zurich of city slaughters, fields of irrigation, People's house from the nonalcoholic dining room, working quarter, etc. He edited the school and sanitary magazine, spoke at many scientific forums, propagandized female education, achievements of the Russian territorial medicine, issued the quick reference guide on hygiene which sustained 3 editions.
F. F. Erisman made a fundamental contribution to development of primary branches of hygiene (see). In particular, he developed a row a dignity. questions of construction of a water supply system, the sewerage and fields of irrigation in Moscow and problems of school hygiene (influence of occupations and illumination of classes on sight of pupils, a rational design of school furniture etc.). Public value of its works is big: on the basis of inspection a dignity. conditions of the industrial enterprises of the Moscow province existence in Russia of industrial proletariat was for the first time revealed; V. I. Lenin and G. V. Plekhanov used results of inspection in political struggle with populism (see Lenin and health care). The publicistic works of the scientist published in the 70th in the Domestic Notes magazine substantially promoted improvement a dignity. conditions of St. Petersburg.
A portrait see on an insert, Art. 48. Works: Ueber intoxication amblyopieen, diss., Zurich, 1867; The Management to hygiene,
p.1 — 3, SPb., 1872 — 1877; Public hygiene, SPb., 1878; Course of hygiene, t. 1 — 3, M., 1887 — 1888; Chosen works, t. 1—2, 1959.
Bibliography: Bazanov V. A.,
F. F. Erisman (1842—1915), D., 1966;
Igumnov of Page, F4, F. Erisman, Mugs -
KOV, 1926; Petrov B. D., F. F. Eris-man, M., 1970. B. A. Bazanov.