ERGOT (Secale cornutum, synonym uterine horns; GFH, joint venture. B) — the based stage (sclerotium) of a fungus of Claviceps purpurea (Fries) this Tulasne. sporynyevy (Clavicipitaceae) of a class of ascigerous fungi (Ascomycetes), parasitizing on an ovary of many cereals, hl. obr. neigh. Has an appearance oblong, almost trihedral, 10 — 30 mm long, up to 5 mm wide, slightly curved black-violet outgrowths (horns).
The chronic poisonings of S. caused by consumption of the bread infected with this fungus were widespread in pre-revolutionary Russia. In a crust, time in the USSR this type of poisonings does not meet.
S. contain alkaloids (not less than 0,05% of dry weight), amines (sincaline, atsegilkholin, tyramine, a histamine, etc.), alkylamines (trimethylamine, methylamine, etc.), amino acids (valine, a leucine, etc.), and also fatty oil, milk to - that, sugar (mycosis), ergosterol and pigments.
Depending on features of a chemical structure alkaloids C. subdivide into two groups — ergoalkaloida and klavinovy alkaloids. Pharmacological laevoisomers of ergoalkaloid are most active, to-rye are derivatives of lysergic acid (see). Treat them ergotamine (see), ergozin, ergostin, ergokriptin, ergokristin, ergokornin and ergometrine (see). The dextroizomers corresponding to them (ergotaminin, ergozinin, etc.) are derivatives isolysergic to - you and differ low pharmakol. activity. Also kla-vinovy alkaloids are a little active (penniklavin, etc.).
On the basic pharmakol. to action alkaloids C. carry to to uterine means (see) since they raise a tone of a myometrium. However along with it alkaloids C. have also adrenoceptor blocking, antisero-toninovy and dofaminomimetichesky properties.
S.'s action on a uterus is characterized by increase in excitability and a tone of a myometrium, strengthening of the rhythmic reductions which are quickly passing into tonic. The uterus after 6 months of pregnancy is especially sensitive to S. The uterus of the giving birth woman reacts to administration of alkaloids C. stronger, than not giving birth. S.'s ability to strengthen a tone of a myometrium is caused by a direct impact of ergometrine and other ergoalkaloid on unstriated muscles. These alkaloids raise also the tone of unstriated muscles of bodies went. - kish. path and vessels. Renders on a tone of vessels of S. both direct myotropic vasoconstrictive, and the vasodilating influence connected with alpha and adrenoceptor blocking action of hl. obr. ergotamine and ergokriptin. Ergometrine is deprived of adrenoceptor blocking properties. The hydrogenated ergoalkaloida of Page received in the semi-synthetic way. dihydroergotamine (see) and dihydroergotoxin (see) surpass natural in adrenoceptor blocking activity. The hydrogenated and natural ergoalkaloida are antagonists serotonin (see) about what connect with their ability to reduce a tone of brain vessels and therapeutic effect at nek-ry forms of migraine. On c. N of page of an ergoalkaloida have sedative effect. Alkaloids C. and their nek-ry derivatives, e.g. 2 - bromine - alpha ergokriptin (Bromocriptinum), brake an inkretion of prolactin by activation of dopamine receptors of mammotrofny cells of an adenohypophysis.
As uterine means use drugs C. for a stop of uterine bleedings after abortion, at meno-and metrorrhagias. In a puerperal period drugs C. are appointed after department of a placenta at hypotonia of a uterus, its subinvolution, a lohia serosa. For this purpose use as drugs of nek-ry individual alkaloids, napr, ergometrine a maleate, ergotamine hydrotartrate, etc., and the drugs C. containing the sum of alkaloids. Ergotal is among such drugs, e.g., to-ry contains mix of phosphates of alkaloids C. Ergotal is appointed inside on 0,0005 — 0,001 g by 2 — 3 times a day or enter subcutaneously or intramusculary 0,5 — 1 ml of 0,05% of solution.
Ergotamine and the hydrogenated alkaloids, napr, dihydroergotamine, use as the ss-adreno-blocking means. Bromocriptinum is applied at the states which are followed a hyper pro-varnish-tinemiyey, napr at a galactorrhoea and an amenorrhea at women, at nek-ry forms of impotence at men.
Drugs of an ergot are contraindicated at pregnancy, in the first and second period of childbirth, at stenocardia.
At acute poisoning of S. devocalization very quickly develops, and then coma (see). Detailed clinical signs of acute poisoning of S. and a measure of acute management — see Poisonings, the table. At subacute intoxication of disturbance hl are shown. obr. adynamy. More often they develop at a convulsive form of poisoning. Paresthesias in extremities (feeling of numbness, crawling of goosebumps, cold, tightening) are typical. Tonic spasms of flexion muscles of extremities, extremely painful at a convulsive form, are followed by sensation of fear, alarm, motive concern, vegetative frustration. During the weighting of the general condition of streets with subacute intoxication devocalization accrues. In hard cases development of psychoses with syndromes of disturbance of consciousness is possible. A delirium (see. Delirious syndrome ) at subacute intoxication it is characterized by poverty of hallucinatory and crazy symptomatology, and amental syndrome (see) — change of the short-term periods of euphoria by spiteful affect. S., typical for poisoning, is the syndrome twilight stupefaction (see). From so-called transitional syndromes at subacute poisoning sometimes meet hallucinatory paranoid, depressive, the maniacal and catatonic stupor is more rare. Duration of psychosis at subacute poisoning — 3 — 10 days, then develops a resistant and deep adynamy. At more favorable course of subacute poisoning symptoms of an adynamy regress within 1 month.
At prolonged use of drugs C. development hron is possible. poisoning (ergotism), precursory symptoms to-rogo are the general weakness, weakness, a headache, drowsiness, i.e. the frustration inherent to an asthenic syndrome (see), and also numbness and anesthesia of fingers of hands and legs, abdominal pains, vomiting.
At hron. intoxications against the background of an adynamy are shown symptoms psychoorganic syndrome (see). At the same time there are certain personal shifts in the form of decrease in intellectual activity, narrowing of a focus of interest, sensitivity, punctuality, tendency to tantrums. At an ergotism apply neuroleptics to stopping of psychopathological symptomatology, and at the phenomena of a psychoorganic syndrome — nootropic means. See also Intoksikatsionny psychoses .
See also Alkaloids .
Bibliography: Vyyasnovsky A. Yu. Ergotism, Classification of forms, clinic and pathological anatomy of a chronic ergotism, Perm, 1937; At p e in and the p M. O. About a mental disease because of poisoning with an ergot, M., 1911; Infections and intoxications of a nervous system, under the editorship of M. N. Guttman and B. N. Mankovsky, page 321, Kiev, 1936; Kolosov G. A. Angry posing (ergotism), its etiology, a clinical picture of attacks, a current and treatment, SPb., 1912; D. M. O Sandpiper mental changes at an ergotism, Owls. neuropath., psikhiat. and psikhol., t. 4, No. 7, page 113, 1935; M and e in with to and y and Nikolskaya, «Angry posing» (raphania), Shurn. neuropath, and psikhiat., No. 4, page 29, 1931; M and sh to about in with to and y M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p.1, page 462, M., 1977; With t about l and N and R. Sluchay Ergotinum psychosis, Zhurn. neuropath, and psikhiat., t. 31, No. 1, page 108, 1931; The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, ed. by A. G. Gilman and. lake, N. Y., 1980.
I. V. Komissarov; M. A. Tsivilno (psikhiat.).