ERGONOMICS (Greek ergon work + nomos the law) — the scientific discipline studying labor processes for the purpose of optimization of tools and working conditions, increases in efficiency of work of the person and preservation of his health. AA. uses knowledge of anatomy, physiology, psychology and occupational health and a number of technical science, and also human engineering (see). The main object of ergonomic researches is the complex system «the person — the car» (see), in a cut the leading role belongs to the person.
Emergence and development E. are caused by scientific and technical progress. The ergonomics develop in many countries of the world: the International ergonomic association (1961) is created, in the International Organization for Standardization the Ergonomika committee is formed, training of specialists in
the area E is conducted., specialized scientific magazines are issued.
Development E. in the USSR it is connected with emergence and formation in 20 — the 30th there are 20 century of the scientific organization of work. On the basis of complex studying of separate types of work of the person V. M. Bekhterev and V. N. Myasishchev suggested to allocate studying of work of the person in special scientific discipline — an ergologiya, or an ergo-nologiya. Systematic researches on all main directions E. are carried out from 60th. Problems E. are developed as in medical, and technical institutions of the country. The complex of standards of the general ergonomic requirements to the production equipment, jobs, an operating controls, media is created. In 1974 member countries of SEV signed the agreement on scientific and technical cooperation in ergonomics.
Main methodological principle E. systems approach is. During the ergonomic researches all factors characterizing the «person — the car» system from positions of influence of these factors on the person, efficiency of his work and system in general are in a complex studied. AA. widely applies methods of physiology, psychology and occupational health, anthropology, biomechanics, system engineering. The timing (measurement of expenses of time for performance of manufacturing operations and their elements), methods of a professiografiya (the description of nature of work), definition of an algorithm of activity are used; studying of labor actions and a working pose (a tsiklografiya, film and photographing, etc.), observation and poll (by means of questionnaires, interviewing). Methods of definition of social and economic efficiency are applied to assessment of the operating system.
All used methods are directed to studying of working conditions, temporary structure of work of the person, design features of the production equipment; on assessment of degree of rationality of the organization of a workplace from the point of view of providing a convenient working pose, optimum trajectories, admissible speeds, numbers of movements and sizes of the efforts made for an operating controls; on studying of information exchange of the operator and the car, a functional condition of systems of a human body.
Modeling of the «person — the car» system and elements of work in experimental conditions is important. E.g., modeling of work in the inconvenient working pose caused by irrational placement of actuation devices on the production equipment, a design of a working seat allows to define degree of a static and dynamic muscle tension, fiziol. expenses (according to an electromyography, heart rate, energy expenditure, etc.) and to optimize work working by constructive changes in the equipment. The statistical data obtained in use technicians and during pilot studies allow to distribute rationally functions between the person and car.
A comprehensive approach in studying of this system defines need of use and mutual approval of the scientific these various disciplines which are versatily investigating a problem of a human factor in the equipment. AA. does not substitute the researches conducted in physiology, psychology and occupational health, anthropology. It synthesizes achievements of these sciences in relation to the tasks.
Use of the ergonomic principles at engineering and analysis of work of the person has important medical value. Observance of requirements E. — the account in designs of cars and the production equipment of anthropometrical present, physiological and psychological possibilities of the person — provides a convenient working pose, reduction of a static and dynamic muscle tension, physiologically rational labor movements, optimum sizes of exercise and information stress during the work, put -
a telny emotional background. All this reduces tiresomeness of work, increases efficiency of the person, keeps his health. Bibliography: Zinchenko V. P. and Mooney p about in V. M. Fundamentals of ergonomics, M.,
1979, bibliogr.; Zinchenko V. П.# Munipov V. M. and G. Residents of Smolensk of JI. Ergonomic bases of the organization of work, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Human engineering in use to design of the equipment, the lane with English, under the editorship of B. F. Lomov and V. I. Petrov, M., 1971; Production ergonomics, under the editorship of
S. I. Gorshkov, M., 1979, bibliogr.;
Singleton V. T. Introduction to ergonomics, the lane with English, M., 1974; Ergonomics, Problems of devices of working conditions to the person, the lane with polsk., M., 1971; - Aberg U. Job design for an ergonomist, Ergonomics, v. 20, p. 1, 1977; Chapanis A. Quo vadis, ergonomia? ibid., v. 22, p. 595, 1979; To
a r v o-n e n M. J. Ergonomic criteria for occupational and public health surveys, ibid., p. 641; Murrell K. F. H. Ergonomics, L., 1965, bibliogr. H. A. Kokhanova.