ERAZISTRAT

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ERAZISTRAT (Erasistratos, 3 century BC) — the Ancient Greek doctor.

Was born on the lake of Chios. Studied medicine at Chrysippos and Metrodor (Metrod5ros) — the famous doctors of Knidsky school (see Medicine). Apprehended Aristotle's philosophy from Theophrastos, the direct successor Aristotle. Long time was a court doctor of Selevk Nikator, the governor of Syria. At the time of Ptolemaeus of the II Filadelf (285 — 246 BC) lived and worked in Alexandria.

Erazistrat and his predecessor Herophilos are considered as founders of a descriptive anatomy of the person. They were the first Greek doctors opening human corpses. Continuing Alkmeon Krotonsky's researches, Erazistrat studied a structure of a brain, described the gyruses, a firm and soft cover of a brain, nervous trunks departing from a brain, divided nerves on sensitive and motive, developed Aristotle's doctrine about the pneuma coming to an organism at breath. For the first time described limf, the vessels of a mesentery which are repeatedly opened for G. Aselli in 1622. He carefully investigated a structure of heart and its valves, the Crimea gave names. For designation of pulp of muscles and nek-ry internals entered the term «parenchyma». Considered that all fabrics are connected among themselves by system of nerves, veins and arteries, and believed that in veins blood — nutritious substance flows, edges forms from food, and in arteries — the vital pneuma connecting in lungs to blood (introduction of the term «arteries», i.e. «bearing air», also attribute Erazistratu). Having concluded that arteries and veins are connected among themselves by small vessels — «sinanas-tomoza», it close approached the idea about the blood circulation which is scientifically proved by U. Garvey. Erazistrat recovered from the humoral pathology accepted at that time (see), the cut followed Hippocrates, and took the first steps in the theory of solidary pathology. Believing that the organism consists of a set of firm indivisible particles (atoms), to-rye move on channels of a body, he considered a disease result of «plethora», i.e. disturbance of this movement in connection with indigestion of food and stagnation of blood in veins. Therefore directed treatment to elimination of the reasons of stagnation, applied a rigid diet, emetic and diaphoretics, exercises, massage, douches and thus paved the way for methodical system of Asklepiad. In Erazistratu's surgery attribute the invention of a catheter. His followers were called by erazistrator. Under the influence of Erazistrat and Ge-rofila at a boundary 3 and 2 centuries BC there was a school of the doctors-empi-rikov recognizing experience as the only source of medical knowledge. Philippos Koos, Serapion Serapion, etc. were representatives of this school.

Erazistrat's compositions did not remain. They are known on works of K. Galen, A. Tseljs and other antique and Byzantine authors. Bibliography: Zh. M. Istoriya's Gardia of medicine from Hippocrates to Brusse and his followers, the lane with fr., Kazan, 1892; Kovner S. G. History of ancient medicine, p.1, century 3, page 687, Kiev, 1888; Davis H. T. Alexandria, The golden city, v. 1, Evanston, 1957; Geschi-chte der Medizin, hrsg.

v. A. Mette u. I. Winter, B., 1968; Wellmann M.

Erasistratos, in book: Paulys Real-Encyclopa-die der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, hrsg. v. G. Wissowa, Bd. 11, S. 331, Stuttgart, 1907. T. S. Sorokina.

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