EPIZOOTY

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

EPIZOOTY (Greek epi-among + zoon animal) — mass spread of infectious diseases among house or wildings in a certain territory (e.g., livestock economy, the site of a natural or anthropogenous landscape). Such epizootic diseases as a brucellosis, a foot-and-mouth disease, rage, plague, a tularemia and other zoonoza, constitute danger and to the person (see Zoonoza, Epidemic process). At a lab. the epizooty of a disease of Teyler (Tay-lerioza) often leads animals to 100% of their death. Teylerioz represents the acute viral disease of mice proceeding as encephalomyelitis with spasms and paralyzes of extremities.

Intensity and duration E. depends on number house or wildings, degree of their susceptibility to a disease, and also on number and activity of arthropods at an epizooty, the activator a cut is transferred in the transmissible way (see. Transmissible diseases). AA., developing among wildings in the natural centers of zoonotic infections (plague, a tularemia, leptospirosis, etc.), are characterized by the expressed seasonality (see. Natural ochagovost). So, intensity E. a number of transmissible diseases (e.g., the arboviral infections transmitted by mites and mosquitoes) generally depends on the period of activity of the corresponding arthropods — carriers and tanks of the activator, decreasing in cold season. AA. hemorrhagic fever with a renal syndrome arises during the autumn period more often in connection with increase in number of red voles and with their subsequent moving to rooms where farm or domestic animals contain (see Rodents). Thus, emergence E. it is in many respects caused purely biol. factors. However degree of intensity and duration E. depend also on efficiency of preventive actions. In livestock farms emergence E. a foot-and-mouth disease, a brucellosis, a malignant anthrax and other diseases prevent by protection of farms from delivery of sick animals and observance of terms of a quarantine, disinfection of rooms, vaccination of animals (see Veterinary sanitary inspection; Quarantine, karantinization). In the natural centers of a measure of the prevention of emergence E. include destruction of carriers (e.g., elimination of mites by use of insecticides), elimination of fleas in holes of rodents in the natural center of plague, and also fight against rodents in the territory of the centers and in settlements (see Disinsection, Disinfection, Deratization).

Bibliography: Elkin I. I., etc. Epidemiology, M., 1979; Smirnov S. M. and Ter-Karapetyan A. 3. Epidemiology and prevention of zoonotic infections, M., 1975. See also bibliogr. to St. Epidemiology. S. A. Shilova.

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