EPIKANTUS (epicanthus; Greek epi-on, atop + kanthos a corner of an eye) — the vertical fold of skin of a semi-lunar form covering an internal corner of a palpebral fissure.
AA. it is observed normal at representatives Mongoloid and nek-ry groups of avstralonegroidny race. Existence E. at representatives of other races is hereditary anomaly, edges it is sometimes combined with other malformations. Meets also posttraumatic E., the century connected with cicatricial changes.
Inborn E. — bilateral anomaly. Distinguish direct and the return E. At direct E. the basis of a fold is located in an upper eyelid; the fold can begin from an eyebrow and pass to
Fig. Eyes of the child with inborn to straight lines epikantusy, more expressed in the left eye.
lower eyelid (fig.); it covers with concave edge an internal corner of a palpebral fissure (a medial corner of an eye, T.) — a medial palpebral commissure, the lacrimal meat, the lacrimal openings, sometimes reaches a cornea. At the return E. the basis of a fold is located in a lower eyelid. Quite often inborn E. it is combined with a ptosis (see), a blepharophimosis (see Eyelids), squint (see). In process of growth of the child E. can decrease or disappear completely.
Diagnosis E. establish at survey on the basis of characteristic outward.
Treatment is operational, carry out I hl. obr. with the cosmetic purpose. Depending on character and degree of manifestation E. apply different types of plastic surgeries. Defect is eliminated by cutting out and movement of two rags of skin of Z-shaped or triangular shape. At patients with traumatic E. make excision of cicatricial fabric and free change of a skin rag.
At inborn E. the forecast is more often favorable. In cases, when E. it is combined with a ptosis and a blepharophimosis, he completely does not manage to be eliminated. At posttraumatic E. the forecast depends on the nature of damage.
Bibliography: D y m sh and L. A c. Fundamentals of ophthalmology of children's age, L., 1970; The Guide to eye surgery, under the editorship of M. JI. Krasnova, page 24, M., 1976.
A. V. Hvatova.