From Big Medical Encyclopedia


(Greek epidemos logos extended among the people + the doctrine) — the section of epidemiology and one of the most important industries of military medicine studying questions of the theory and prakti-ky anti-epidemic protection of troops.

Object of studying E. century military collective with all features of completing, the organization, age composition, life, military work inherent in it in the conditions of peace and wartime is.

For a long time events for protection of troops against epidemics as wars were always followed by growth inf were held. diseases. In the past, before opening of activators inf. diseases, these actions were carried out empirically. Thanks to observation of physicians of that time the complex of reasonable anti-epidemic actions was developed. So, e.g., in 1793 according to A. V. Suvorov's instructions the headquarters doctor of E. T. Belopolsky made the first in army rules to medical ranks, in to-rykh are stated a dignity. - epid. requirements for protection of troops against infectious diseases. They consisted in active identification of patients, their isolation, carrying out measures for disinfecting of water and a dignity. to supervision of food.

After the victory of Great October socialist revolution the preventive principle which is been the basis for all anti-epidemic work in troops was strongly approved and conditions for creation of harmonious system of anti-epidemic providing appeared (see) troops. In days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945 it gained further development and was organizationally strengthened. A number of measures was developed, to-rye played a crucial role in preservation of epidemic wellbeing in the years of war. It is necessary to refer sanitary and epidemiologic investigation to them, for example, (see. Medical investigation), the principle of treatment of infectious patients on site, creation of anti-epidemic barriers — the sanitary checkpoints (SC) — between the front and the back, etc. (see System of anti-epidemic providing). The leading place in development of rational and evidence-based system of anti-epidemic providing and military epidemiology belongs to S. I. Zlatogorov, D. K. Zabolotny, N. K. Rosenberg, E. To N. Pavlovsky, T. E. Boldyrev, A. Ya. Alymov, S. V. Vis-kovsky, G. A. Znamensky, etc.

In modern conditions a role and value E. increase century. Improvement of means and ways of warfare, emergence of new types of weapon, including weapons of mass destruction, set new tasks for it and demand development of the additional actions directed to preservation in troops of epidemic wellbeing. Use of nuclear weapon (see) will cause mass destructions, in particular water, sewer systems and others a dignity. - a gigabyte. devices that the dignity will bring in sharp deterioration. - epid. situations, and ionizing radiation, oppressing protective forces of an organism, will cause activation of opportunistic microbes. The biological weapons developed in the imperialistic countries (see) and ways of its use put before E. century of a task of studying of features of artificially caused epidemic process and development of measures of protection from this weapon.

Variety of conditions, in to-rykh are or conduct fighting of army, emphasizes need of use of all latest means and methods of the prevention of a drift and distribution inf. diseases in troops for the purpose of maintenance of epidemic wellbeing in any conditions of their activity.

See also Meditsin military, Epidemiology.

Bibliography: Agafonov V. I. Experience

of anti-epidemic providing troops in the Great Patriotic War and its value in modern conditions, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 4, page 46, 1975; it, Some lessons from experience of the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945 and a task of further improvement of anti-epidemic work, Shurn. mikr., epid. and immun., No. 5, page 3, 1980; Agafonov V. I. and Tararin R. A. To history of military epidemiology, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 6, page 81, 1973; Military-medical preparation, under the editorship of F. I. Komarov, page 106, 347, M., 1983; Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, t. 32, M., 1955; Smirnov E. I. Questions of the organization and tactics of public health service, page 77, M., 1942; it, War and military medicine, 1939 — 1945, M., 1979;

Encyclopaedic dictionary of military medicine, t. 5, Art. 1228, M., 1948.

V. I. Agafonov