ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL — system of the governmental activities directed to rational environmental management, preservation and improvement of the environment for the benefit of extant and future generations of people. The lake of the lake of page includes, thus, a complex of actions, a part to-rykh a part — on the prevention and elimination of undesirable influences is directed to optimization of processes of environmental management, and from the environment on the person, i.e. the actions of sanitary and hygienic, sanitary character supported with the state legislation.
In a broad sense understand as environmental management direct (or indirect) impact of the person on the environment. At the same time it is about use not only material natural resources (power, mineral, water, land, forest etc.), but also the resources of the nature necessary for providing rational (rational, but not any requirements generated by development of so-called consumer society) needs of people, including their healthy physical and spiritual life.
The purposes and tasks of environmental management are formulated in article 18 of the Constitution of the USSR (1977) as follows: «For the benefit of the present and future generations in the USSR necessary measures are taken for protection and evidence-based, rational use of the earth and its subsoil, water resources, a plant and animal life, for preservation in purity of air and water, ensuring reproduction of natural wealth and improvements of the environment surrounding the person».
Actions of sanitary and sanitary character include a dignity. protection of the air basin (especially inhabited places) in connection with snowballing of the industry and transport; protection against effect of toxic chemicals and other chemical means in connection with their broad use in agriculture; fight against influence of the radioactive materials more and more widely applied in the national economy — the industry, medicine, biology; development of maximum allowable concentrations of toxicants and protection against effect of these substances on a human body etc.
The scientific and technical progress penetrating the industrial and agricultural industries of the national economy is impossible without impact on the nature, without expenditure of its resources. Accumulation of capacities of industrial production is always connected with big use of raw materials, a considerable expenditure of water for industrial needs and increase in pollutions of contaminants. Therefore it is impossible to underestimate dangers of negative effects of the strengthened impact of the person on the nature. Meaning the chaotic use of natural wealth taking place in the capitalist world, F. Engels wrote: «However, we will not be under a delusion too with our victories over the nature. For each such victory she revenges us. Each of these victories has, however, first of all those effects which we expected, but in the second and third turn absolutely other, unexpected effects which very often destroy value of the first» (Marx K., Engels of F. Soch., t. 20, p. 495 — 496). In the conditions of socialist society the state legislatively regulates use of natural resources and establishes rules of nature protection. Therefore the problem of reasonable, rational use of the nature and its preservation for the benefit of the present and future generations is quite feasible. In the conditions of socialist society rational use, preservation and reproduction of natural resources and careful attitude to the nature are a component of construction of communistic society, in Krom optimum quality of the environment is an element of material welfare of people. It equally belongs both to the external environment, and by the Wednesday surrounding the person in conditions of production, his life and rest.
The problem of the environmental pollution caused by immediate effect of activity of the person especially sharply arose in the second half of the 20th century. Environmental pollution in the USA, England, Japan, France and other mouthpieces. the countries with high concentration of the industry reached critical, life-threatening and health of the population of the sizes. Non-regulated and uncontrollable use of natural resources leads to disappearance of green arrays, intensive pollution of the atmosphere, water sources, accumulation in the soil and vegetation, and also the animal organisms consuming this vegetation, substances, receipt to-rykh in a human body through food stuffs became dangerous to his life.
Special danger is constituted by products of combustion of coal and oil products, suspended particles of dust and metals, exhaust gases of cars etc. Different total quantity of the harmful substances coming to the environment in a year around the world exceeded 30 billion tons. Hundreds of millions tons of carbon monoxide, apprx. 150 million t of sulfuric oxides, more than 50 million t of nitric oxides are thrown out the atmosphere of Earth. Annually hundreds of millions tons of ashes are thrown out the environment; millions of cubic meters of the crude drain waters containing a large amount of various toxic agents come to open reservoirs. In water of these reservoirs strong toxic chemicals, salts of metals, the numerous, steady, not existing earlier in the nature substances collect. Pollution of reservoirs leads to reduction of natural reserves of sweet water, breaks life activity of water plants, planktonts, fishes etc.
Pollution of the soil industrial, household and agricultural wastes happens the menacing rates. Around many industrial productions artificial were formed biogeochemical provinces (see) with the increased contents in the soil of lead salts, cadmium, mercury and other chemical elements. By numerous observations it is shown that these it is high - toxicants, life-threatening the person, are capable to collect in plants, insects, birds, fishes, in various livestock products. At assessment of degree of danger of pollutants of the environment on system a so-called stress indexes (i.e. indicators of the most dangerous pollutants) first place was won in the seventies pesticides (see). Broad use of these substances in the national economy led to the fact that they became a constant component of the environment — collect in ecological systems, migrate on a global scale. These substances cause profound changes in ecological systems, promote emergence of pesticides of forms of wreckers, resistant to action, death of useful organisms.
Sovr, the industry creates essentially new materials which were not existing in the nature and in many respects alien on physical. and to chemical properties to live organisms. The human body is evolutionarily not ready to action of many of them. Impact on the person led them to emergence of unknown before diseases — genetic, toxicological, allergic, endocrine etc.; at the same time it is necessary to consider a possibility of emergence of these or those forms of pathology through lineages. Medical researches showed that the contaminated free air became one of major factors in an etiology and a pathogeny of respiratory diseases, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, emphysema of easy, malignant new growths of bodies of respiratory system. So, e.g., according to the Japanese researchers for 1975 — 1976, the increased content in air of Tokyo of nitric oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and suspended particles led to mass diseases of bodies of respiratory system of city dwellers.
One of effects of scientific and technical progress — emergence in the environment in the menacing quantities of mutagen factors physical. and chemical nature. From physical. factors first of all it should be noted different types of ionizing radiation of high penetration. It is established that mutagen impact of ionizing radiation has generality and a besporogovost, i.e. any doses are capable to cause it genetic damages. The researches of geneticists conducted in 60 — 70 showed that even insignificant exposure doses can lead to increase in number of patients with hereditary diseases twice.
Mutagen ability also many chemical connections have, and a number from them on intensity of mutagen action exceeds ionizing radiation. In the 60th there was even a term «supermutagens», substances, a mutagenicity to-rykh in tens and hundreds of times began to designate the Crimea exceeds a mutagenicity of ionizing radiation (see. Mutagens ).
Many pesticides have cytogenetic activity, mutagen and carcinogenic activity of many nitric oxides, nitrosamines and other nitro compounds is revealed. The mutagen effect of the alkylating connections which are formed of waste of the industry and at open technological processes etc. is studied. Getting to the environment, mutagen substances interact with each other therefore in free air and water sources high concentration of not studied dangerous cancerogenic complexes are created.
Development of technology of conservation and broad use of preserved foods of food put consumers in conditions of direct contact with chemical mutagens — formalin, propylene glycol, various nitro compounds, etc. In total the modern canning industry in many countries became owing to insufficient state a dignity. supervision by a source in a human body of chemical mutagens.
«Contamination» of the environment such unhealthy the person physical became more and more serious problem. factors, as vibration (see), noise (see), electromagnetic fields of various ranges (see. Electromagnetic field ) etc. what is connected with a wide spread occurance of various vehicles, household products, growth of number and capacities of radio - and TV stations, radar installations etc. It is established that by the end of the 70th noise level increased in all large cities on 12 — 45 dB, and subjective loudness — twice. Noise prevents rest, leads to sleeplessness. It is an origin of diseases of a nervous system, an idiopathic hypertensia, etc. Noise promotes easing of attention, memory, speed of reactions, reduces labor productivity, serves one of proximate causes of traumatism. It is counted, e.g., that in France noise is the reason of 11% of accidents at work, 15% of wasted operating time. After sound insulation of workrooms of offices of one American insurance company of a mistake of clerks were reduced by 52%, and typists — for 29%.
Until the end of the 60th years of a research of ecologists and hygienists the hl concerned. obr. problems dignity. protection of objects of the surrounding nature across the nation, studying of the phenomena and effects of local pollution of the surrounding nature. In the 70th the attention of scientists and the public was switched to studying of already global effects of environmental pollution. Fight against approach of ecological crisis became a necessity for all countries and the people, turned into one of factors of international policy and the international cooperation.
Nek-ry bourgeois scientists at discussion of the situation come to a conclusion that sovr, about-in stepped over a threshold of natural self-defense of the nature and that it cannot already be saved by efforts of the person. The scientific and technological revolution even more often is represented bourgeois theorists as force hostile to human society. Representatives of this current predict inevitability of death of all human civilization, all live on the earth. Others consider that the scientific and technological revolution itself will solve the ecological crisis, irrespective of character of a social order. The third, revealing real crisis situations in the modern capitalist world, are limited to abstract appeals to overcoming such situations by means of «revolution in consciousness of the person». The science, the equipment and the person are considered by bourgeois theorists in a lead over the social organization of life activity of people, in a lead over society. They tear off science and on - uchno-technical revolution, their functions and an orientation from social conditions, to-rye are various depending on the existing social order.
Modern ecological crisis is determined by social conditions of a capitalist system. Practice of socialist society demonstrates that destructive impact of a scientific and technological revolution on the nature is not fatal inevitability.
Environmental control in the USSR.
The environment is inseparably linked with the person, being an active object of the nature. In this regard I. M. Sechenov wrote: «The organism without the external environment supporting its existence is impossible therefore scientific definition of an organism includes also the Wednesday influencing it».
In the field of environmental control the CPSU and the Soviet government proceed from recognition of vital importance of this problem for all mankind. Party and personally V. I. Lenin in exclusively difficult conditions of formation of economy attached great value to questions of protection of the environment and connected with these questions of preservation and promotion of health of workers. Only for the first years of existence of the Soviet power of V. I. Lenin signed more than 100 documents directed to O. to the lake of page and rational use of natural wealth. In 1918 in work «A sketch of the plan of scientific and technical works» V. N. Lenin emphasized that business of nature protection shall be put according to tasks of socialist construction.
The decree about the earth was the first act of the Soviet government signed by V. I. Lenin, on Krom all earth and its subsoil appeared state ownership. This act in a legislative order injurious use of the earth stopped. On May 27, 1918 I. Lenin and Ya. M. Sverdlov signed the law «About the Woods», to-ry obliged local authorities to care for resuming and systematic use of the woods. In February, 1919 VSNKh adopted the special resolution «About the Central Committee Water Ochre-neniya — Tsentrvodookhrana», in Krom the wide program of measures for protection of reservoirs from pollution was planned by drain waters of the industrial and utility enterprises. Same year signed by V. I. Lenin there were decrees of SNK «About a Subsoil of the Earth», and in 1921. «About protection of fish and animal grounds in the Arctic Ocean and the White Sea». The careful attitude to natural wealth reflected in decrees and resolutions became the principle of socialist environmental management and environmental control.
A number of resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR was only in recent years adopted: «About strengthening of nature protection and improvement of use of natural resources» (1972), «About measures for prevention of pollution of basins of the Volga Rivers and the Urals the crude drain waters» (1972), «About measures for prevention of pollution of basins of the Black and Azov seas» (1976), «About measures for further ensuring protection and rational use of natural wealth of the basin of Lake Baikal» (1977), «About additional measures for strengthening of nature protection and improvement of use of natural resources» (1978).
The Supreme Council of the USSR accepted «Bases of the legislation of USSR and Federal republics about health care», in to-rykh questions of environmental control, «Bases of the water legislation of USSR and Federal republics», «Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about a subsoil», «Bases of the forest legislation of USSR and Federal republics», and also the Law of USSR «About protection of free air» are also reflected. Besides, in relation to certain regions of the country, in recent years Council of ministers of the USSR prpnyal a number of the resolutions directed to strengthening of measures for nature protection and rational use of natural wealth of the country.
For the first time in the history of mankind questions O. of the lake of page were included in the country constitution — the Constitution of the USSR (1977). In it the principles of rational, evidence-based use of natural resources are regulated, tasks of preservation and improvement of the environment, public health care are defined. A necessary condition of protection of the person against adverse environmental factors was development of criteria, exceeding to-rykh is connected with risk of causing damage to health of the person.
The Soviet state became the first state in the world which established the evidence-based maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of various harmful substances in free air of production rooms, in water of reservoirs in food stuffs etc. The first maximum allowable concentrations concerning sulfur dioxide gas, nitric oxides and hydrogen chloride were approved by the People's commissar of the work RSFSR in 1922. By fiftieth years in our country maximum allowable concentrations in air for sulfur dioxide gas, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, carbon sulfur, carbon monoxide, nitric oxides, lead and its connections, metal mercury, dust (not toxic) and soot were in details developed and approved.
The maximum allowable concentrations developed scientific issledova-telskimi by institutes and approved by M3 of the USSR were included the special section into construction norms of CH 245—71 «Sanitary standards of design of the industrial enterprises», and maximum allowable concentrations of harmful substances in air of a working zone were a basis of GOST 12.1.005.76 «Air of a working zone» of occupational safety standards system. The USSR is approved a gigabyte. standards for chemical substances, to-rye can contaminate reservoirs (apprx. 800), free air (St. 400), air of production rooms (St. 1000), the soil (St. 20), foodstuff (apprx. 200).
Huge problems of development of the national economy cause the necessity of strengthening of measures for environmental control, first of all on protection of reservoirs against pollution, and also reduction of an adverse effect of pollution by health of the person. It will be solved further expansion of construction of treatment facilities, development and deployment of flow diagrams of wasteless productions and wide use of reverse water supply. Only in 1975 for the purpose of protection of sweet water against pollution 1580 complexes of treatment facilities were opened up; a lot of work in this direction is carried out on the large cities of the basin of Volga. The important place in protection and improvement of the environment (protection of water and air basins, noise reduction and improvement of a microclimate) is allocated for town-planning actions (see. Town planning ). It is first of all carrying out for city boundaries or a reshaping of the enterprises, emissions from to-rykh it is impossible to reduce significantly, creation evidence-based sanitary protection zones (see) around the industrial enterprises.
For the purpose of protection of the population against noise construction of large highways bypassing inhabited arrays is carried out, narrow streets are replaced with the highways isolated from inhabited constructions by green plantings; flows of freight vehicles are regulated, time of transportation of goods in retail chain stores of densely populated areas is regulated. Acts of the Soviet government on nature protection and rational use of natural resources find the reflection in the state capital investments on these purposes.
So, during 1981 — 1985 countrywide it is planned to direct more than 10 billion rubles of the state capital investments to implementation of a complex of nature protection actions.
According to O. the lake of page in the USSR development of hookups of placement of the industries of the national economy, projects of a regional design and large industrial complexes both for the next years, and on a long term of development is of great importance for problem solving. These plans provide rational use of the territory and natural resources, and also improvement of working conditions, life and rest of people. They contain evidence-based actions for placement of settlements, the industrial and agricultural enterprises, engineering constructions, zones of mass rest and reserved territories.
According to resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About strengthening of nature protection and improvement of use of natural resources» (1972) and «About additional measures for strengthening of nature protection and improvement of use of natural resources» (1978) new provisions are introduced in practice of state planning of economic actions for O. of the lake of page. Regularly different types of works and escalating allocations according to O. by the lake of page are provided in the current and perspective state development plans for the national economy of the USSR according to sections of the corresponding industries of economy. Actions for nature protection and rational use of natural resources in the state development plans for the national economy are marked out in the independent section. The state reporting on performance of mines - you and departments of the relevant activities is established. All construction projects new and reconstruction of the operating enterprises surely pass state examination taking into account influence on the environment.
The state committee of the USSR on science and technology together with Academy of Sciences of the USSR and other departments develops the scientific and technical forecast of possible changes in the biosphere as a result of development of the industries of the national economy in the long term for 20 — 30 years.
In our country the broad system of public authorities and public organizations on nature protection is created (see. Sanitary and epidemiologic service , Sanitary inspection ). Public authorities approve development plans for the national economy, specially hear and resolve the issues connected with improvement of use of natural resources, the analysis of a state and further improvement of environmental control. In the Supreme Council of the USSR there are constant commissions on nature protection at Council of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities. Reports and offers of these commissions in appropriate cases are discussed at the sessions of the Supreme Council of the USSR, Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR or on its assignment by Council of ministers of the USSR, the ministries and departments of the USSR. The commissions on nature protection at Councils of People's Deputies exist also at the level of federal and autonomous republics, edges and areas, areas, settlements.
The council of ministers of the USSR directs, heads, coordinates and controls activity of mines - in and departments of the USSR and directs activity of councils of ministers of federal republics to areas O. of the lake of page, develops complex actions for improvement of business of environmental control both for the country in general, and on certain large districts and adopts the relevant resolutions. In the same direction councils of ministers of federal and autonomous republics carry out the activity.
Functions of the state nonconsumptive control of activity of all enterprises and organizations irrespective of their departmental subordination are assigned to a number of mines - in and departments. So, the M3 of the USSR carries out the state dignity. supervision of implementation of the established rules and provisions on utility improvement, water supply, food, life and rest of the population, placement of industrial facilities, providing the water preserving actions, etc.; Mines-in of agriculture of the USSR exercises the state control of observance of the land legislation and an order of use of the earth, of the correct maintaining hunting economy, preservation and enrichment of useful flora and fauna, and also on reserved business; Mines-in of melioration and water management of the USSR carries out the state control of rational use of waters, performance of actions for protection of reservoirs, work of treatment facilities and dumping of drain waters into reservoirs.
The state Committee of the USSR on hydrometeorology and control of the environment together with institutions state a dignity. Min-va supervision of melioration and water management of the USSR provide control of the level of environmental pollution. The Nation-wide service of observations and control of the level of pollution of the surrounding environment is for this purpose organized. Some other mines - in and departments is equipped with functions of the state control of use and protection of natural resources according to their specialization. Such everyone min. - in has the relevant state inspectorates. Laws on nature protection are adopted in all federal republics. Certain federal republics created the state republican committees on nature protection at councils of ministers. Such committees are created in the Ukrainian, Belarusian, Georgian, Azerbaijani, Lithuanian and Moldavian SSR.
For scientific justification of the made crucial decisions and development of technical policy in the field of nature protection at the State committee of the USSR on science and technology the Interdepartmental scientific and technical council on complex problems of environmental control and rational use of natural resources is organized. Coordination and preparation of offers on the solution of large national objectives in this area, and also performance of a number of important advisory functions are assigned to it.
At Academy of Sciences of the USSR the Scientific council on problems of the biosphere designed to combine efforts and to direct work of many scientific institutions developing scientific bases of rational use and protection of natural resources and methods of economic and ecological assessment of their use works. Development of the principles ekologo - what and nomic assessment of the major types of natural resources is in recent years strengthened. The big complex of works on studying of the World Ocean and the atmosphere is carried out. In the long term researches of the World Ocean shall lead to the best use of its huge biological, mineral, energy and other resources, promote improvement of means of protection of the ocean from pollution.
Much attention in our country is paid to the organization of state reserves, to-rye are, in essence, zones of preservation and studying of genetic fund of the biosphere. Activity of state reserves is carried out according to the principles of preservation of representative standards of the nature and gene pool. State reserves and wildlife areas along with the enterprises of forest, fish, hunting economy perform a lot of work on recovery of stocks of valuable plants and animals, including and those, to-rye are on the verge of disappearance.
The problem of nature protection puts forward many difficult questions demanding from workers in the area O. of the lake of page of special knowledge already today. Therefore along with creation of technical base the prof. training of specialists in various questions O. of the lake of page extends. Considering it, Min-in of the higher and secondary vocational education of the USSR developed measures for improvement educational and research in the area O. of the lake of page. The section «Nature protection» is entered into training programs of a number of higher education institutions of the USSR since 1973 to supply to future specialists with the main information on a problem of nature protection and ways of its practical decision. In many technical colleges training of engineers, technologists, architects and other specialists in questions O. of the lake of page began. Promotion of knowledge of the nature, education of feeling of the careful relation to it at the population by means of the press, radio, television is important.
A lot of work is conducted by public organizations — voluntary about-va nature protection, Moscow and others about-va testers of the nature, geographical about-va, about-in «Knowledge» etc. National high fur boots and f-you on nature protection will be organized. The important role in education of careful attitude to the nature and its riches is allocated for school, young naturalist circles.
Historical decisions of the XXVI congress of the CPSU became a powerful push to the solution of questions O. of the lake of page. The wide and comprehensive program of actions for quality management of the environment (section IX «Nature protection») is provided in «The main directions of economic and social development of the USSR accepted at a congress for 1981 — 1985 years and for the period till 1990». Problems of strengthening of nature protection, the earth and its subsoil, free air, reservoirs, animal and flora are listed among priority, and by consideration of urgent questions of development of science relevance of increase in efficiency of actions in the area O. of the lake of page is noted.
At statement of the main task of the eleventh five-years period — ensuring further increase in welfare of the people — special attention is paid to improvement of national health care, and also protection and improvement of the environment for the benefit of preservation and promotion of health of the population. The extremely important part is assigned to the scheduled maintenance directed to the prevention of diseases. Taking into account it the comprehensive program of the theoretical and practical researches on a problem «Scientific bases of hygiene of the environment» begun in the tenth five-years period was developed. In this program acceleration, expansion and deepening of studying of the general patterns of processes of adaptation, mechanisms of interaction of a human body with a complex of favorable and harmful environmental factors of an anthropogenous and natural origin, and also socio-economic factors for the purpose of justification of system of the nation-wide actions directed to optimization of living conditions, work and rest of the Soviet people is planned.
International cooperation in environmental control. Taking effective measures for protection and improvement of the environment in the country, the Communist Party and the Soviet government attached and attach great value to expansion of full international cooperation in this area. The Soviet
Union recognizes that combination of efforts of all states can only be the most rational approach to a successful solution of the problem of the environment having global and difficult character. From the first days of the existence the Soviet state carries out vigorous activity in this direction. In 1922 between RSFSR and Finland the bilateral agreement about water use and regulation of fishing in boundary water systems was signed. The similar convention was signed in 1927 with Turkey. The same year the USSR signed the agreement with Iran on joint operation of fisheries of the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. Agreements on questions of protection of waters and fishery were signed by the Soviet Union with neighboring countries, and with some countries, besides, agreements on joint fight against wildfires and holding quarantine actions were signed.
Development of the international cooperation in the area O. of the lake of page and rational use of natural resources is a component of the Program of the World adopted at the XXIV congress of the CPSU. Making at a congress the report, the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU of comrade of JI. And. Brezhnev spoke on this matter: «Our country is ready to participate together with other interested states in the solution of such problems as preservation of the environment, development of energy and other natural resources, development of transport and communication, the prevention and elimination of the most dangerous and widespread diseases, a research and space exploration and the World Ocean».
Realizing the Program of the World, the Soviet Union signed cooperation agreements in area O. of the lake of page with the USA, France, Sweden, Canada, Germany, England, Italy, Iran and other countries.
Even earlier, in August, 1963, in Moscow representatives of the governments of the USSR, the USA and England signed «The contract on prohibition of testing of nuclear weapon in the atmosphere, space and under water». The St. 100 states joined this contract.
In 1966 between the USSR and France the agreement on scientific and technical and economic cooperation was signed. The scope of long-term (10 years') cooperation included development of methods of calculation and forecasting of levels of pollution and search of means of protection of free air, methods of studying of resources of surface and underground waters, ways and the equipment for sewage treatment and other problems.
In 1972 in Moscow between the USSR and the USA the cooperation agreement in area O. of the lake of page was signed. Within this agreement studying of impact of pollution on the Wednesday surrounding the person, development of bases of regulation of influence of human activity on the nature and measures for prevention of air pollution, the soil and water was provided.
The USSR and other socialist states acted as initiators wide collective ме^-роприятий in a solution of the problem of the environment. In the draft of the General declaration on bases of the European safety and the principles of the relations between the states offered by the Soviet Union on the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in Europe it was specially told about need for all states of the continent of development of bilateral and multilateral ties in the field of environment protection. The section devoted to development of such bonds was included in the project offered by participants of the meeting delegations of GDR and Hungary. Offers of the USSR, GDR and Hungary were unanimously supported by participants of the All-European meeting and found total reflection in the Final act of this historical forum signed in Helsinki on August 1, 1975 by heads of 33 European states, and also the USA and Canada. In this document it is proclaimed: «... protection and improvement of the environment, and also nature protection and rational use of its resources for the benefit of present and future generations are one of the tasks which are of great importance for welfare of the people and economic development of all countries and that many problems of the environment, in particular in Europe, can be effectively solved only by close international cooperation».
The State Parties of the All-European meeting accurately defined specific goals of cooperation on the specified problem, planned the most important areas, possible progressive forms and methods of this cooperation. They agreed to cooperate in such areas as pollution control of air, in particular; protection of waters from pollution and use of sweet waters; protection of the marine environment; protection of the soil and use of lands; nature protection and reserves; improvement of state of environment in the inhabited areas; basic researches, observations, forecast and assessment of changes in the environment; legal and administrative measures for O. of the lake of page.
The successful completion of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe gave a powerful impulse to development of the international cooperation on problems of protection and improvement of the environment. It is planned to solve these problems both on bilateral, and on a multilateral basis, including regional and subregional. At the same time it is supposed to use completely available and potentialitys of the existing international organizations dealing with issues O. of the lake of page, in particular the Economic Commission for Europe of the UN, and the Program of the UN for the environment in to-rykh the Soviet Union actively participates and makes a constructive contribution to development and implementation of their programs.
According to the recommendation of a conference of the UN about problems of the environment which became history under the name of the Stockholm conference (1972), and on the decision of the XXVII session of the United Nations General Assembly in 1972 the international «Program of the UN for the environment» (YuNEP) was created. This program included 7 priority activities: 1. A problem of development of human settlements, maintenance of health and welfare of the person (the environmental problems caused by strengthening of process of an urbanization, questions of pollution control of air, and also a problem of utilization firm and effluent); 2. Problems of protection of the soil and waters, and also fight against distribution of deserts (studying of questions of rational use of water resources and prevention of their pollution, improvement of technology of sewage treatment, implementation of progressive technologies of water use); 3. Problems of education, vocational training, information transfer (carrying out the international symposiums and seminars concerning training of specialists to areas O. of the lake of page, creation of the international help service in a problem of the environment); 4. Trade, economic and technological aspects of a problem of the environment (studying and search of the most effective ways of pollution control of the environment, and also development of methods of the most rational operation of natural resources); 5. Protection of the World Ocean against pollution (the main direction at first — pollution control of the World Ocean oil and oil products); 6. Protection of a plant and animal life, preservation and maintenance of genetic resources of the globe (questions of protection of the plants and animals who are under the threat of disappearance and also questions of change of natural ecological systems as a result of impact of the person on them); 7. A problem of energy and energy resources (originally only assessment of the available information on this problem with emphasis on the economic party).
The USSR actively cooperates in the field of environmental control with socialist, and also with the capitalist countries and a number of the international organizations — the UN, YuNEP, WHO, UNESCO, etc. Successfully scientific and technical cooperation of the USSR with member countries of SEV on a complex problem «Development of actions for nature protection» develops. The main directions of cooperation are: approval of methodical approaches to the solution of such questions as public health care, protection of ecological systems and a landscape, protection of free air, improvement of methods of utilization and neutralization of waste, social and economic, organizational, legal, pedagogical aspects of O. of the lake of page for the purpose of a planned raspredeleniya of tasks between the certain partner countries. Only on problems of hygiene of the environment more than 30 institutions of the socialist countries take part in this cooperation.
Active international cooperation on medical aspects of problems O. of the lake of page is carried out through WHO. According to resolutions of the World Assembly of Health care since 1973 the wide program for impact assessment of environmental factors on health of the person under the name «Program of WHO for Hygienic Criteria of State of Environment» is put into practice. Within the Program groups of experts from various countries, including the USSR work, to-rye carry out the analysis of the data on toxicity and danger of various pollutants of the environment which are available in the world and develop recommendations for tolerance levels of their impact on health of the person.
In May, 1978. The presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR ratified the convention on prohibition of military or any other hostile use of levers on the environment. This convention was signed in 1977 in Geneva by representatives of 33 member states of the UN. The most important feature of the new convention is that she mentions such activity and such processes (meteorological and geographical), to-rye never earlier were the sphere or a subject of the international agreements. The convention expressed the most important problem of our time — to keep in all beauty and variety our earth — the planet of people it served people and from now on.
At ratification of the convention the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Chairman of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR comrade of JI. I. Brezhnev told: «The Soviet Union does everything possible for nature protection, its plant and animal life, mineral resources... But we not one on the planet, and preservation of the nature demands efforts of all people inhabiting the globe» («Truth», 1978, on May 17).
Bibliography: Ananichev K. V. Problems of the environment, energy and natural resources, M., 1975; Anuchin V. A. Bases of environmental management, Theoretical aspect, M., 1978; Bochkov N. P. Genetic monitoring of human populations in connection with pollution of the environment, Cytology and genetics, t. And, No. 3, page 195, 1977, bibliogr.; Influence of the environment on health of the person, M., WHO, of 1974; Genetic effects of environmental pollution, under the editorship of N. P. Dubinin, etc., century 2, page 14, M., 1977; Hygiene of the environment in the USSR, under the editorship of G. I. Sidorenko, M., 1981; Hygienic aspects of environmental control, under the editorship of E. I. Korenevskaya, century 6 — 7, M., 1978 — 1979; Dubinin N. P. and Pashin Yu. V. Mutagenez and environment, M., 1978, bibliogr.; Carcinogenic substances in the Wednesday surrounding the person, under the editorship of JI. M. Shabad and A. P. Ilnitsky, Budapest, 1979; Criteria of necessary and sufficient test systems for identification of mutagen and cancerogenic factors in the environment, under the editorship of N. P. Dubinin, etc., page 4, M., 1978; Criteria of sanitary and hygienic state of environment, I. Mercury, the lane with English, Geneva, WHO, 1979; M of e of l of e sh to and N M. T., Zaytsev A. P. and Marinov of X. Economy and environment, M., 1979; Nikitin D. P. and Novikov Yu. V. Environment and person, M., 1980; Pokrovsk V. A. Gigiyena, M., 1979; The Quality manual of free air in the cities, under the editorship of M. J. Syyuess and S. R. Kreksford, lane with English, M., 1980; The Collection of regulations on nature protection, under the editorship of V. M. Blinov, M., 1978; T and - about r B. Environmental control, the lane with Wenger., M., 1980; Shabad JI. M. O of circulation of carcinogens in the environment, M., 1973; Ekholm E. The environment and health of the person, the lane with' English, M., 1980; Environmental health criteria, 4, Oxides of nitrogen, Geneva, WHO, 1977; Environmental pollution and carcinogenic risks, ed. by C. Rosenfeld a. W. Davis, P., 1976; Handbook of muta-genecity test procedures, ed. by B. J. Kil-bey, Amsterdam, 1977.