From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ENVIRONMENT — habitat and production activity of the person. It includes working conditions, life, rest and food. The concept «environment» is wider, than the concepts «external environment» and «production environment», to-rye are its component. The production environment is limited to impact on the person of production factors in the conditions of work. External environment unlike production or intra housing (the environment of inhabited and public places) is characterized by influence of various physical, volumetric and biological factors out of production or premises.

O.'s factors of page share on natural and artificial. To the most important natural factors of O. with, making impact on the person, the gas composition, barometric pressure, temperature, humidity, mobility and ionization of air belong; macro - and microale-mentny composition of water and food stuffs; zoo - and phytoplankton of water; microorganisms of water and soil; space and solar radiation; natural radoactive radiation, etc. Artificial factors of O. of page arise in the course of economic activity of the person. This air pollution, waters, soil and food stuffs harmful chemical and biol, substances, noise, vibration, accelerations, electromagnetic zero various frequency ranges.

Live organisms, including the person, for centuries-old history of the development adapted to influence of natural factors. The human body is a little adapted for influence of artificial factors also its reaction depending on character, level and duration of action of these factors can be various: from insignificant deviations in the state of health to diseases and even death at extreme extents of influence.

Influence of the person on O. of page becomes more and more notable, and especially sharply it amplified in the conditions of a scientific and technological revolution. In different degree all natural components O. of page People underwent change many animal species cultivated and created cultivated plants, but at the same time exterminated many wildings and destroyed the whole biocenoses. The area of the woods on Earth was reduced since the Neolithic approximately twice, on site natural vegetation there were processed lands, there were secondary woods, heathlands, meadows. However intervention of the person in regulation of natural processes not always brings desirable positive takes since it is difficult correct to estimate the remote effects of such influence. Disturbance at least of one of natural components leads, owing to the interrelations existing between them, to reorganization of the developed structure of natural and territorial complexes.

Exerts special impact on health of the person urbanization (see). Along with considerable improvement a dignity. conditions of many territories, decrease in incidence inf. new disease-producing (pathogenic) factors arose diseases. Therefore O. of page needs protection and improvement for the benefit of preservation of the nature and human health. In this regard environmental control gained the state value and is regulated in many state and interstate acts (see. Environmental control ). Most successfully actions for nature protection and rational use of natural resources are carried out in the socialist countries where they have planned state character.

Ecological aspects of protection of O. of page are developed within the international program «Person and Biosphere» (UNESCO) devoted to studying of the general processes and the phenomena connected with impact of the person on the biosphere.

See also Sanitary protection of free air , Sanitary protection of reservoirs , Sanitary protection of the soil .

Bibliography: Influence of the environment on health of the person, the lane with English, M., WHO, 1974; Health and the environment, under the editorship of D. Lenikhen and U. Fletcher, lane with English, M., 1979; H and to and t and N of Dative, H ovik about in Yu. V. and G. P Marks. Scientific and technical progress, nature and person, M., 1977; E to x about l m E. The environment and health of the person, the lane with English, M., 1980, bibliogr.

G. I. Sidorenko.