ENTsEFALOMETRYYa (Greek enke-phalos a brain + metreo to measure, measure) — set of methods of measurement of a brain and it
«separate parts at a X-ray or morphological inspection.
AA. includes macro - and the microenets-falo a metriya. Makroentsefalometriya — measurement of objects, visible with the naked eye: define
ny the volume of a brain or its departments, the size of a free surface of crinkles and furrows. Mikroentse-falometriya — measurement of microscopic objects: sizes of cells, kernels, kernels and cell inclusions, width of bark and separate bast layers, gravity test of an arrangement of nervous cells in various cortical fields and kernels of a great brain, a cerebellum p a brain trunk, density of an arrangement and diameter of myelin and amyelinic fibers in conduction paths of c. N of page, diameter and density of an arrangement of capillaries in various formations of a brain.
The size of a surface of a brain is measured on continuous series of cuts by means of the stereological method which is that tsontur a cut by means of the projector transfer to paper and measure by the curvimeter. The volume of cytovery tectonic formations (cortical or subcrustal fields, trunk kernels) determine on the same cuts by measurement of their area by the planimeter with the subsequent calculation for the formula considering thickness of cuts. The size and density of an arrangement of cells, and also width of bast layers are established under a microscope by means of «an okulyaro-micrometer, and also measured in the microphotos or sketches made under a microscope.
For determination of surface area of a brain of size, received by measurement of perimeters of paraffin sections, multiply by coefficient of wrinkling, i.e. the relation of the sizes of a cut of a brain before and after «go fixings. During the definition of density of an arrangement of cells the mistake arises because the same cell can be counted on two next cuts. This error of subjects is more, than thin section and than is larger than a cell. For reduction of a mistake count only those cells, in to-rykh the kernel is visible, and for correction use a formula of Aberkrombi:
D + m’
where P — true number of kernels, And — number of the kernels seen on a cut, M — thickness of a cut and D — diameter of a kernel. Calculation of density of a capillary network is made across Blinkov and Moiseyev by multiplication of quantity of capillaries in sight of a microscope at the doubled size of the area of this field.
K E. refer also the measurements which are carried out for stereotaxic operations (see. Stereotaxic neurosurgery), which make on a pneumoencephalogram (see Pnevmoentsefalografiya). At the same time the sizes of different departments of a brain, their arrangement and distances between them establish by counting from nek-ry constant reference points, napr, front and back commissures of a brain. In a crust, time for measurement of quantitative parameters of a brain the computer tomography is widely used (see the Tomography computer). Perform also measurements of various formations of a brain on their projection to the surfaces of a skull, applying a method of kraniotserebralny topography (see). Bibliography: Ivannikov Yu. G.
Use of the COMPUTER at stereotaxic brain operations, D., 1969; To and N d e l E. I. Functional and stereotaxic neurosurgery, M., 1981; Melik yan A. G., etc. Stereotaxic computer tomography, Vopr. neyrokhir., century 2, page. And, 1983; Blinkov S. M of u. Glezer I. I. Das Zentralnervensystem in Zahlen und Tabellen, Jena, 1968. S. M. Blinkov.