From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ENTOMOLOGY MEDICOLEGAL (Greek entomon an insect + logos the doctrine) — the section of applied entomology including the data on a structure, development and life activity of nek-ry species of insects used in medicolegal expert practice for the solution of a number of the special questions connected with determination of prescription of approach of death, character and the mechanism of formation of damages on a corpse, etc.

During the finding of a corpse in the places available to an insect, it is exposed to settling and destruction by the nek-ry species of insects called by entomofauna of a corpse. Knowing patterns of alternation of species of the insects breeding on a corpse and replacing each other through certain time terms, and also stages of development of insects of one look it is possible to define time of approach of death approximately.

The first occupy a corpse of a larva of nek-ry species of flies, actively eating soft tissues. Then larvae of bugs-nekro-phages join them, the term of development to-rykh makes 30 — 45 days. In 45 — 60 days after the beginning of settling in a corpse larvae of bugs-entomofa-gov appear. The insects eating the dehydrated organic matters — khapra beetles and moths complete skeletonization of a corpse.

Settling of a corpse flies happens in the first days after death. A corpse representatives this occupy. Calliphoridae, larvae to-rykh usually develop in corpses mammal and meat waste (Sa1-liphora of vicina, Lucilia illustris, L. sericata, Cynomia mortuorum), and nek-ry types this. Sarcophagidae, in particular sorts Parasarcophaga, Sarcophaga. Flies this. Sarcophagidae is viviparous therefore time of their stay on a corpse is limited only to a larval phase, and at flies this. Calliphoridae on a corpse develop both eggs, and a larva. Pupation of larvae of flies of both families happens in the soil. Speed of development of larvae of flies generally depends on ambient temperature. So, at t ° 10 — 12 ° development of larvae of Calliphora vicina comes to the end during 21 days, at t ° 34 — 35 ° duration of their development is reduced to 5 days. Knowing species composition of the larvae of flies inhabiting a corpse, a stage of their development and temperature of the decaying corpse, it is possible to calculate approximately time of settling of a corpse (repeated mass settling of a corpse flies meets extremely seldom). Calculation is conducted, using the rule of the sum of «effective» temperatures. «Effective» call temperatures, at to-rykh perhaps development of an insect, i.e. development exceeding the lower temperature limit. The temperature threshold is specific to each species of an insect and to each phase of development.

For more exact definition of time of an otkladka of eggs flies use the so-called indexes of development reflecting duration of each phase of development of an insect of this look at a certain temperature. For this purpose the larvae taken from a corpse grow up in a lab. conditions at t ° 20 ° and light day not less than 16 hours before removal of an imago. Knowing an index of development of larvae at t ° 20 ° and time which passed from the moment of their withdrawal from a corpse before removal of an imago define the part of a phase of development passed by larvae in nature. Using indexes of development for the period preceding detection of a corpse calculate time of settling of a corpse flies.

Process of skeletonization of a corpse insects continues until the end of the warm period of this year, but can pass also the next year. Therefore detection on a corpse of diapauziruyushchy insects (see the Diapause) also allows to judge time of approach of death. Process of destruction of a corpse insects can be slowed down adverse meteorol. conditions (low temperature, long rainfall), development of the preserving postmortem changes (see), existence on a corpse of the clothes which are especially contaminated by fuel and lubricants substances, an extensive obgoraniye of fabrics of a corpse, settling by its large number of bugs entomophages or ants.

The possibility of destruction of soft tissues of a corpse is considered by insects in court. - medical expert practice at assessment of a prizhiznennost, prescription and the mechanism of the damages found on a corpse since these destructions can have external looking alike the changes arising at nek-ry types of injuries, napr, burns.

See also Saprophages, Entomology.

Bibliography: Kozhanchikov I. V.

Methods of a research of ecology of insects, M., 1961; Marchenko M. I. To a question of destruction of a corpse insects, Court. - medical examination, t. 21, No. 1, page 17, 1978; Marchenko M. I. and Vinogradova E. B. Influence of seasonal changes of temperature on breakdown rate of a corpse larvae of flies, in the same place, t. 27, No. 4, page 11, 1984; Millers Yu. L. and Zharov V. V. Medicolegal definition of time of approach of death, M., 1978; Yakhontov V. V. Ecology of insects, M.,

1969. I. V. Buromsky.