ENTOMOLOGY (Greek entomon an insect + logos the doctrine) — the section of zoology studying insects. AA. is of great importance for medicine; data and methods E. are used in parasitology (see) and epidemiology (see Epidemiology) during the studying of the insects who are parasites of the person, infection carriers (see), poisonous insects.
To the middle of 19 century object of studying E. there were all arthropod (Arthropoda), after steel only insects (Insecta), to-rye by number of types prevail over all other animals.
Over 1 million species of insects are so far described, however the fauna of insects is studied insufficiently. The early scientific research in the area E. M. Malpigi and J. Swammerdam were executed in 17 century, to-rye used microscopic methods of a research for studying of a structure and a metamorphosis of insects. Classical work of J. Swammerdam «The bible of the nature» (Biblia naturae) is generally devoted to insects. To further development E. promoted Reaumur (To. Reaumur) in France, A. Rosel von Rosenhof in Germany, De Gueer (To. De Geer) in Sweden. At the end of 18 — the beginning of 19 century a systematics of insects was intensively developed, their biology and entomofauna (species composition of insects) of various regions of the world was studied. Systematic researches in the field of ecology of insects began to be conducted only at the beginning of 20 century. To the middle of 20 century researches on a paleoentomologiya became more active. Significant contribution to development E. I. A. Por-chinsky, N. A. Holodkovsky, etc., in the field of medical entomology —
V. N. Beklemishev, N. G. Olsufyev,
E brought. N. Pavlovsky, P. A. Petrishcheva, etc.
E. it is subdivided into the general, private and applied. The general E. studies patterns of a structure, development, evolution of insects and includes comparative morphology, a systematics, zoogeography, ecology, physiology, genetics, paleontology and genealogy of insects. Private E. considers separate systematic groups of insects, napr, a dipterologiya — group of flies, a koleopterologiya — group of bugs etc. Applied E. investigates the insects having practical value and includes agricultural, veterinary and medical E. Objektom studying agricultural E. insects — wreckers of crops (see), wreckers of foodstuff (see Wreckers of grain, grain products), and also nek-ry useful types are: a honey bee (an object of beekeeping), mulberry and oak silkworms (object of silkworm breeding), and also types, being natural enemies of wreckers, pollinators of plants and pochvoobrazovatel. The veterinary entomology studies the insects causing damage to livestock production, and medical E. — insects — constant or temporary parasites of the person (see Parasites); poisonous types (see. Poisonous animals); carriers of causative agents of transmissible diseases (see) and intestinal infections; insects, being causative agents of diseases of the person (see Dermatitis, Mi elements), and also the blood-sicking insects combined by the term midges (see) mass attack to-rykh on the person can cause heavy intoxications and allergic states.
In modern E. the problem of use of pheromones for management of behavior of insects is studied, genetic methods of controlling with harmful insects are developed (in particular, sterilization of males); in population ecology of insects methods of mathematical modeling are widely applied.
Research in the area E. it is conducted at Zoological institute of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, academies of federal republics, at departments of zoology and entomology of universities, agricultural and veterinary higher education institutions, VMA. Problems medical E. are developed in a number of the research institutes of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences researching in the field of epidemiology, medical parasitology, tropical medicine and also SES and antiplague institutions. Research work on protection of plants against harmful insects is headed by Institute of protection of plants of VASHNIL. In the USSR entomologists are united in All-Union science entomological foundation at Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Leningrad) with departments in all federal republics. Bibliography: Bey-Biyenko G. Ya. General entomology, M., 1980, bibliogr.;
In and r l and D. To., etc. Ecology of populations of insects, the lane with English, M., 1978; Dogel V. A. Zoology of invertebrates, M., 1975; Pavlov
of skiya of E. H. Guide to parasitology of the person, t. 2, M. — JI., 1948; Ross G., Ross Ch. and Ross D. Entomologiya, lane with English, M., 1985; The Textbook of medical entomology, under the editorship of V. N. Beklemishev, M., 1949; History of entomology, ed. by R. F. Smith, Palo Alto, 1973.
E. H. Pavlovsky, A. A. Zemskaya.