ENGELGARDT Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1894 — 1984) is the Soviet biochemist, the academician of AN (1953) and AMN (1944), the winner of the State awards of the USSR (1943, 1979), Hera of Socialist Work (1969).
1919 medical f-t Moscow un-that.
Nachalniko of field hospital were a medical officer. Scientific activity of the beginnings in 1921 in Biochemical in-those Narkomzdrava of RSFSR (nowadays Ying t of biochemistry of
A. N. Bach of Academy of Sciences of the USSR).
A. N. Bach's pupil.
In 1929 — 1933 professor, the department chair of biochemistry medical f-that Kazan un-that. From 1933 to 1940 professor Leningrad un-that, and from 1936 to 1959 — Moscow un-that. In 1935 — 1959 managed laboratory of biochemistry of a zooblast Ying-that biochemistry of
A. N. Bach Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1935—1944, 1950—1959), laboratory of biochemistry of a zooblast Ying-that physiology of I. P. Pavlov Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1944 — 1950), department of biochemistry Ying-that experimental medicine of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (1945 — 1952). Participated in the organization (1959) Ying-that radiation and physical and chemical biology of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (since 1964 — the Institute of molecular biology of Academy of Sciences of the USSR), to-ry headed lives till last days. In 1955 — 1959 was the akade-mikom-secretary of Department of biological sciences of Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
W. A. Engelgardt is the author of a large number of scientific works. Its early works are devoted to questions of immunochemistry of enzymes. Studying of phosphorus compounds, their bonds with aerobic anaerobic energy balance of a cell, clarification of a role of these connections in providing fiziol became later the main direction of its researches. functions of a live organism. V. A. Engelgardt stated the first the idea about existence at the cellular level of interface between process of phosphorylation of ADF and breath (see biological oxidation), and in 1930 — 1932 experimentally proved existence of oxidizing (respiratory) phosphorylation — process of aerobic resynthesis of the ATP interfaced to cellular respiration. These researches were an important stage in development of biochemistry. Together with M. N. Lyubimova to them it was established that the main structural protein of muscles a myosin (see. Muscular tissue, biochemistry) has properties of enzyme of ATP-ase. This work was conferred in 1943 the State award USSR. Theoretical researches
of W. A. Engelgardt are devoted to many major problems of biochemistry (see). He is one of founders of molecular biology (see) and biophysical chemistry (see) in the USSR. For outstanding achievements in the field of biochemistry and molecular biology W. A. Engelgardt in 1968 was awarded by Academy of Sciences of the USSR the Gold medal of M. V. Lomonosov. On its initiative and with direct participation by scientific centers of the USSR, GDR, ChSSR and Party of Russian Taxpayers in the 70th the Return Transcriptase (Revertaza) project — a research of molecular bases of reverse transcription was carried out (see Revertaz). These researches in 1979 were celebrated by the State award USSR.
W. A. Engelgardt — one of the first full members of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, it was the chairman of Scientific council on problems of molecular biology at Presidium of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the representative of the USSR and the vice-president of the International council of the scientific unions to UNESCO, the editor of the corresponding redotdel of all BME editions, the founder and the editor-in-chief of the Molecular biology magazine. He was a member London royal about-va (1960), the American academy of Sciences and arts (1960), American biochemical about-va (1961), the corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of GDR (1950), honourable doctor Marselsky un-that and the member of many scientific about - century
164 ENGELMANNA DISEASE
Is awarded by five Orders of Lenin, awards of Patriotic war
of the II degree, the Labour Red Banner and medals.
Works: Physical and colloid chemistry, Kazan, 1931, 1933; Oxidative breakdown of phosphogluconic acid, Biochemistry, t. 3, century 4, page 500, 1938 (sovm. from Barkha-shem. Item); Adenozintrifosfataza and myosin of a muscle, in the same place, t. 4, century 6, page 716, 1939 <sovm. from Lyubimova M. N.); Phosphoric acid and functions of a cell, Izv. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, It is gray. biol., JVs 2, page 182, 1945; Superficially localized adenozinpolifos-fataza (ekto-apyrase) of nuclear erythrocytes, M., 1955 (sovm. with Venkstern T. V.); Molecular biology, in book: Development <5iol. in the USSR, under the editorship of B. E. Bykhovsky, page 598, M., 1967; On the dual role of respiration, Molec. cell. Biochem., v. 5, p. 25, 1974.
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Engelgardt, sost. N. V. Smirnova, M., 1955; To the 85 anniversary since the birth of Vladimir Aleksandrovich Engelgardt, Molek. biol., t. 14, No. 1, page 5, 1980.