ENERGOMETRYYa (Greek energeia action, activity + metred to measure, measure) — definition of the general power consumption, spent by a human body and animals in the course of life activity.
In an organism there is a continuous metabolism and energy (see). The final result of all energy conversions is formation of heat, in size to-rogo it is possible to judge the general power consumption in an organism (see Heat production).
A metabolic cost of an organism can be measured by direct determination of amount of heat given by a body to the environment (a direct calorimetry) and by a research of gas exchange (an indirect calorimetry). The direct calorimetry is made in special bottletight calorimetric cameras (see the Calorimetry).
The indirect calorimetry is based on definition of power consumption on an oxygen request. To each liter of oxygen spent by an organism there corresponds the equivalent amount of released energy determined by the size of a caloric equivalent of oxygen and depending on the oxidized substrates (proteins, fats, carbohydrates). The ratio between them is estimated in size of a respiratory coefficient (see). At simultaneous oxidation of carbohydrates and fats the respiratory coefficient fluctuates from 0,7 to 1,0 (depending on a percentage ratio of the oxidized substrates); the caloric equivalent of oxygen depending on the size of a respiratory coefficient changes from 4,69 to 5,05 kcal. Calculation of energy costs of an organism is perfromed, multiplying sizes of oxygen consumption by its caloric equivalent.
Researches are conducted by method of an indirect calorimetry or in special reepiratsionny cameras (a chamber method), or at breath through the special masks or mouthpieces supplied with the valves separating inhaled air from exhaled (methods of the closed and open circulation). At a chamber method of a research of gas exchange define changes of chemical composition of air during experience (see Shaternikov the camera). The method of the closed circulation is modification of a chamber method: the carbonic acid emitted at breath is removed from air by means of special absorbers; on reduction of the initial air volume corresponding to amount of consumed oxygen estimate expenses of oxygen. The method of open circulation consists in measurement of the air volume coming to lungs and the subsequent analysis of gas composition of expired air. By means of this method mass power metric inspections of people of various professional groups and age were carried out.
New physical methods of the analysis of gas composition of air allow quickly and with high precision to determine the content of carbon dioxide gas and oxygen. So, in Noyons's diafero-meter assessment of their contents is made by measurement of heat conductivity of gas, in an oksimet-ra of Polinga — paramagnetic properties of oxygen etc. Perfect energometra, with the help to-rykh on the basis of special algorithms of researches, improvement of the procedure of an intake of air and methods of its analysis are created, power metric researches are completely automated. In particular, in the device Belau indicators of oxygen consumption and release of carbonic acid register automatically, and existence of an ergometr (see Ergografiya) allows to carry out assessment of gas exchange at various exercise stresses. During the researches register value of a respiratory coefficient, caloric equivalent of oxygen, power of the performed work, size efficiency and max. oxygen absorption, an oxygen utilization quotient, «oxygen pulse» etc. Fleysh (A. Fleisch, 1959) offered energometr — the metabolograf including a dual lung-tester (one functions on a breath, another — on an exhalation) and ergometrichesky installation. The device automatically registers a wide range of indicators.
By means of E. two groups of a metabolic cost in an organism — standard metabolism are allocated (see) and additional power consumption. The first group is made by the metabolic cost connected with maintenance of the level of oxidizing processes, necessary for life, activity of constantly working internals, ensuring the minimum level of a muscle tone. The second group of energy costs is connected with power consumptions on maintenance of a pose and constancy of body temperature (out of a zone of comfort), specific — dynamic effect of food, and also with the power consumption caused by professional activity — working exchange.
AA. it is widely used in clinical, sports and other fields of medicine, by means of E.
make specification of power consumptions in various professional groups working selection of individual actions for correction of power exchange within the corresponding physical exercises and the modes of a physical activity, a correcting of food.
196 ENZIM-IMMUNOLOGICHESKIY METHOD
Special case E. the energometriya of heart is. It is carried out by measurement of energy and work of pulse on a certain site of an artery. Energy (power) of pulse wave is measured by means of a special energometr — the sensitive manometer. The size of cardiac performance is calculated, multiplying energy (power) of separate reduction by number of cordial reductions. Bibliography: Berkovich E. M. Energy balance is normal also of pathology, M., 1964; B at z N and to I. M. Energy balance and food, M., 1978; Vla
of owls of Yu. A. and Okunev G. N. Blood circulation and gas exchange of the person, M., 1983; Karpman V. JI., B e lotser-kovskiya 3. B. and Beeps of I. A. Issledovaniye of physical effeciency at athletes, M., 1974; Mack -
Murray U. A metabolism at the person, the lane with English, M., 1980; With y r about m I am I. N t-nikova. Methods and devices of a research of heat parameters of the person, L., 1980; Cherednichen
to L. K. Physiological calorimetry, M. — L., 1965; Fleisch A.
Neue Methoden zum Studium des Gasau-stausches und der Lungenfunction, Lpz., 1956; Hermansen L. Erometri, Oslo, 1971; Shephard R. J. Human physiological work capacity, Cambridge and. lake, 1978; Wo 1 burg I. o. Dyna-mische Sauerstoffmessung — Voraussetzun-gen und Einsatzmoglichkeiten in der Ar-beits und Leistungsphysiologie, Z. ges. Hyg., Bd 27, S. 38, 1981. V. O. Albert.