ENDOCRINOLOGY (Greek endon inside + krino to separate, allocate + logos the doctrine) — the science studying a structure, functions and pathology of endocrine system and the hormones produced by it.
The first data on the bodies which do not have output channels and allocating secrets directly in blood were given by the fr. anatomist and the doctor Silvius [F. Sylvius (de 1e of Voyo), 1614 — 1672], to-ry ranked a liver, a spleen, adrenal glands as these bodies.
Systematic researches of hemadens began to be conducted since the end 18 — the beginnings of 19 century by Borde (Th. de Bordeu) in 1775 stated the provision that «each body serves as the place of production of specific substance which comes to blood...». It is mute. the physiologist I. Müller in 1830 gave the characteristic of function of glands which do not have output channels. At that time carried a spleen, a thyroid gland, a thymus, adrenal glands to them. In 1835 R. J. Graves and in 1840 K. Bazedov described a wedge, manifestations of the increased function of a thyroid gland. One of the first scientific experiments on studying of function of hemadens was conducted it. the scientist A. A. Berthold in 1849 who showed that the substance emitted by gonads of a rooster influences through blood all its organism. On the basis of the classical researches conducted in 1889 by J. Mehring and O. Minkov-■ sky it was established that at a pancreatectomy at dogs the diabetes mellitus develops. In 1839. Hey - gel (J. Eugel) assumed existence of a functional linkage between a hypophysis, a thyroid gland and gonads. For the first time described a structure of a hypophysis at mammals and the person in 1867 P. I. Pe-remezhko, and in 1887 N. Rogovich proved that removal of a thyroid gland is followed by a hypertrophy of a hypophysis. In 1855 the English doctor T. Addison established that tubercular damage of adrenal glands leads to development of a bronzed disease (see Addisonov a disease). Sh. Broun-Sekar in 1856 experimentally proved that adrenal glands are necessary for life activity of an organism since bilateral removal always leads them in rather short time to death of an animal. In 1873 — 1874. W. W. Gull described a wedge, a picture of a myxedema. T. Kokher and Zh. Reverden in 1883 proved an operative measure at a local craw. In 1886 P. Mari described an acromegalia (see), the reason of development a cut already then was connected with dysfunction of a hypophysis. An important stage of development of the doctrine about hemadens are Sh. Broun-Sekar (1889) researches, in to-rykh it revealed the «rejuvenating» effect of extracts from male gonads of animals and suggested, as other glands cosecrete in blood of substance, necessary for an organism and possessing defined fiziol. action. During this period the concept about the biologically active compounds emitted in blood forms. Pilot studies of the Gley (E. Gley, 1891) for the first time studied effects of removal of epithelial bodies and their is established to that fiziol. value (see Epithelial bodies).
The concept about incretion was entered into science by the fr. physiologist K. Bernard in 1855, having put forward the concept
about constancy of internal environment. Basic researches of the Russian scientists of I. M. of Sechenova^ (1863), I. P. Pavlov (1897) and H. E. Vvedensky (1892) the main mechanisms of self-control, coordination and integration of functions of an organism opened, defined the general patterns of adaptation of the highest animals to living conditions.
Thus, by the end of 19 century a number of the diseases caused by disturbance of functions of hemadens that promoted clarification of their role in a human body and animals was described. In the same time studying of hemadens was allocated in the independent section a wedge, medicine.
The beginning of 20 century was marked by new original researches. In 1901 Aldrich (Th. Century of Aldrych) and J. Takamine received and investigated hormone of marrow of adrenal glands — adrenaline (see). The same year J1. V. Sobolev proved that insulin (see) is formed in islands of a pancreas. 21 year later the Canadian scientific F. Banting and Best (Ch. N of Best) emitted this hormone from a pancreas that allowed to receive further medicine for treatment of patients with a diabetes mellitus. These and other biologically active agents in 1902 Beyliss (W. M of Bayliss) and E. Starling called hormones (see). In 1909 the ital. scientist N. Pende for the first time applied the term «endocrinology».
In 1909. A. A. Bogomolets showed that the secret of bark of adrenal glands has the lipoid nature. In 1910
M. N. Cheboksarov established existence of the secretory nerves regulating release of adrenaline marrow of adrenal glands.
In 1921 Evans (H. M of Evans) and J. A. Long suggested that hormone of a hypophysis stimulates processes of growth, and in 1930 Smith (R. E. of Smith) established that removal of a hypophysis leads to an atrophy of adrenal glands.
H. M. Itsenko in 1925 described a disease of a hypophysis and interstitial brain. Afterwards it was called Itsenko's disease — Cushing (see Itsenko — Cushing a disease) since in 1932 a disease with similar the wedge, a picture described X. Cushing who showed that tumors of a hypophysis are an origin of this disease.
In 1928 E. Scharrer described the phenomenon of neurosecretion and established that in a hypothalamus there is a transformation of nervous impulses in biochemical mechanisms of regulation. By this time the role of endocrine and nervous systems in adaptation of an organism to constantly changing conditions of external and internal environment was defined, and also difficult mechanisms of regulation of function of hemadens are studied.
U. Kennon in 1929 — 1932 formulated the concept «homeostasis», having shown that the unity and constancy of internal environment of an organism is supported by difficult mechanisms, in to-rykh an important role belongs to sympathoadrenal system (see). In 1936. A Selye gave the characteristic of stereotypic responses of an organism to influences of the most various nature — the general adaptation syndrome, in development to-rogo an important role belongs to bark of adrenal glands (see. Adaptation syndrome). M. M. Zavadovsky (1941) formulated the principle «plus or minus interactions», i.e. the law of regulation of function of hemadens as a negative feed-back (see the Feed-back).
In 30 — the 50th 20 century progesterone (1934), testosterone (1934 — 1935), an estrabottom of l (1935), corticosteroids (1937 — 1952), Aldosteronum (1953), vasopressin and oxytocin (1953), adrenocorticotropic hormone (1953) and other hormones were identified and received.
To the middle of the 60th of 20 century in endocrinology the recent trend — a neuroendocrinology develops. In 1950 Hulme (D. M of Hume) and G. J. Wittenstein found influence of extracts of a hypothalamus on secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone. In 1955 Mr. R. Guillemin and Rosenberg (V. of Rosenberg) found the substance stimulating secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (corticotropin) in a hypothalamus, a cut afterwards it was called a corticotropin-rileasing-factor, and to a crust, time ten hypothalamic neurohormones are revealed (see) — seven an incentive of lyator (liberin) and three inhibitors (statine) which are carrying out regulation of secretion of adenogipofizarny hormones (see Gipotalamo-gi-pofizarnaya system, the Hypothalamus, the Hypophysis). The role of opioids and biogenic amines in regulation of secretion of neurohormones and hypophyseal hormones is proved. Many achievements in the field of an experimental neuroendocrinology already formed the basis of diagnostic methods and treatment of endocrine diseases. Rileasing-factors of thyritropic hormone (tireo liberin), luteinizing hormone (lyuliberin), somatotropic hormone (somatoliberin), box Tiko liberin, etc. are used in a wedge, practice. With diseases of gipotalamo-pituitary system apply the pharmaceuticals strengthening or reducing secretion of hypophyseal hormones, and also drugs of triple hormones of a hypophysis to treatment of patients.
Significant contribution to development domestic E. brought V. D. Cher-vinsky, founder of therapeutic endocrinology, editor and one of authors of the guide of «Fundamentals (1929) of endocrinology», N. A. Shereshev-sky who described the syndrome connected with anomaly of gonosomes (1925) to-ry received the name of a syndrome of Shereshevsky — Turner (see Turner a syndrome). N. A. Velyaminov was a founder of domestic surgical endocrinology; it the first in 1886 made operation for a craw. Further this direction was headed by O. V. Nikolaev who made a big contribution to development of methods of surgical treatment of diseases of a thyroid gland, adrenal glands, a pancreas.
A founder of domestic biochemistry of hormones is N. A. Yudayev developing questions of biochemistry of corticosteroids (1956) and hormonal regulation (1976). Basic researches of N. A. Yudayev and his pupils allowed to specify the scheme of biosynthesis of corticosteroids and to create the recent trend which is engaged in studying of allocation and synthesis of neuropeptids.
V. G. Baranov's works considerably expanded idea of mechanisms of development of a diffusion toxic craw (see the Craw diffusion toxic). He created the concept of a pathological climax; it possesses a priority in development of the principle of treatment of patients with a diabetes mellitus (see a diabetes mellitus). E. A. Vasyukova made an essential contribution to development of diagnostic methods and treatment of diseases of gipotalamo-pituitary system. Importance for development domestic E. have V. P. Co-missarenko works on studying of a pathogeny of hypothalamic disturbances, pathologies of adrenal glands, to the mechanism of effect of hormones and creation of new, original medicines. The significant role in development of questions of a pathogeny and methods of treatment of a diabetes mellitus was played by S. M. Leytes, S. G. Genes,
V. R. Klyachko's works. Works A. A. Voight-kevicha and B. V. Alyoshina formed the basis of studying of neurohormonal interrelations at endocrine disturbances. In development of the main questions of pathology of a thyroid gland the significant contribution was brought by N. A. Shereshevsky's works, A. A. Ata-beka, I. X. Turakulov, L. M. Gol-ber, I. B. Havin, V. G. Spesiv-tseva.
On the basis of a comparative research of homologous proteinaceous hormones Yu. A. Pankov and V. I. Pozdnyakov formulated the original concept about the structurally functional organization of a molecule of proteinaceous hormones and about existence of three kinds of the sites of a peptide chain playing various role in biol. effect of hormones.
The most urgent problem modern E. the diabetes mellitus is. According to WHO data (1979), apprx. 30 million people in the world suffer from a diabetes mellitus. It is established that the diabetes mellitus by the nature geterogenen and proceeds with hormonal and metabolic disturbances, the majority from to-rykh is genetically caused, and modes of inheritance at various forms of a diabetes mellitus are not identical. In recent years the arsenal of medicines for treatment of patients with a diabetes mellitus was considerably enriched. Mono component insulin is used, devices «artificial are created (3 cells» for long constant administration of insulin, are carried out change of actively functioning r-cells and islands of a pancreas. Risk factors of a disease of a diabetes mellitus are defined and prevalence of this disease in various ekonomikogeografichesky regions is established.
Important problem modern E. also studying of biosynthesis, regulation and mechanisms of effect of hormones is. The molecular endocrinology represents one of the newest fundamental directions of medical science; it plays a significant role in knowledge bio-chemical and immunol. bases of both normal life activity of an organism, and developing of various pathology. The proof of effect of hormones on DNA and genes, undoubtedly, is one of the largest achievements of biology of 20 century.
Modern E. uses new original methods of a research. In the independent section it was allocated radiation E., using radionuclides and marked connections for a research of function of endocrine system. The broadest application for quantitative definition of hormones was found by radio immunological methods (see). Also the ra-dioretseptorny way of studying of effect of hormones is used. Diagnosis of endocrine diseases is based also on tool methods of a research: scanning with use of a computer tomography (see Scanning), ultrasonic investigations (see. Ultrasonic diagnosis), thermovision (see Termografiya), etc.
In a crust, time E. gained all-biological and all-medical value. Progress of many cardinal directions of medicine, including increase in efficiency of fight against cardiovascular and oncological diseases is considerably connected with development of its fundamental and applied problems.
Development of fundamental and applied problems E. includes: studying of patterns of hormonal regulation of processes of life activity, chemical structure of hormones, their biosynthesis and metabolism in an organism, mechanisms of effect of hormones, especially at molecular level, receiving new hormonal drugs.
The greatest contribution to development of fundamental and applied problems domestic E. brought Ying t of experimental endocrinology and chemistry of hormones of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, being head establishment of Scientific council on endocrinology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, the Kiev scientific research institute of endocrinology and a metabolism of M3 USSR and the Kharkiv scientific research institute of endocrinology and chemistry of USSR M3 hormones.
The scientific council on endocrinology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences is created in 1976. N. A. Yudayev was its first chairman. Two problem commissions «Hormonal regulation of processes of life activity normal and at pathology» and «A pathogeny, diagnosis and treatment of endocrine diseases» are a part of Scientific council.
Problems E. (Sofia), Ying-that of diabetes «Gerhardt Kach» (Karlsburg, GDR), Ying-those are actively developed in the countries of socialism, in particular in Ying-those endocrinology, gerontology and geriatrics of the Bulgarian academy of Sciences of experimental endocrinology of University of Humboldt (Berlin, GDR), the Romanian center for studying of diabetes (Bucharest), Research in-those on endocrinology of the Czech academy of Sciences (Prague, ChSSR), Ying-those endocrinology of the Slovak academy of Sciences (Bratislava, ChSSR), Ying-those diabetes (Zagreb, Yugoslavia), Ying-those endocrinology and diseases of a metabolism (Havana, Cuba), the Endocrinological center un-that in Szeged (Hungary).
In the capitalist countries lead agencies of an endocrinological profile are: Ying t of arthritis, diabetes and diseases of a metabolism at National in-those health care of the USA (Bethesda, the State of Maryland), Uittnerovsky of in-t of endocrinology and diabetes (the USA, La-Djolla, the State of California), Endocrinological department Carolinian in-that (Stockholm, Sweden), the Dzhoslinovsky center for studying of diabetes (USA), the Center of endocrine and exchange diseases un-that in Montpellier (France).
In the USSR it is created endokrinol. the service, edges has endokrinol. offices at policlinics, antigoitrogenic (endocrinological) clinics and endocrinological departments as a part of multi-profile BCs.
Training of teachers and vra-whose-endocrinologists is carried out to TsIU of doctors (Moscow), at departments of endocrinology of GIDUV (Leningrad, Kharkiv, Minsk, Tbilisi, Tashkent). In medical higher education institutions since 1976 teaching E is conducted. at the relevant departments or courses.
All-Union scientific about-in endocrinologists it is organized in 1947. In the republics are available republican scientific about-va endocrinologists. The I All-Union congress of endocrinologists took place in Moscow in 1972,
II — in Leningrad in 1981. Plenums of board All-Union about-va endocrinologists were devoted to epidemiology of a diabetes mellitus and its therapy by peroral antihyperglycemic means (Kaunas, 1974), to urgent problems of diabetology and pathology of a thyroid gland (Chisinau, 1977), to questions of diagnosis and treatment of diseases of a thyroid gland (Jambyl, 1983), and also medical examinations of patients with diseases of endocrine system and prevention of a diabetes mellitus (Smolensk, 1985).
The all-Union USSR, scientific about-in endocrinologists — the member International about-va endocrinologists. The I International congress of endocrinologists took place in 1960 in KopengagYeon, the second — in 1964 in London, the third — in 1968 in Mexico City, the fourth — in 1972 in Washington, the fifth — in 1976 in Hamburg, the sixth — in 1980 in Melbourne, the seventh — in 1984 in Quebec.
The main managements and periodicals devoted to problems E. — see the bibliography. Bibliography: History — In and with yu to about -
va E. A. and Havin I. B. The Soviet clinical endocrinology in 40 years, Probl. endocrinins., t. 3, No. 5, page 49, 1957; Leytes S. M. and Eskin I. A. The Soviet experimental endocrinology in 40 years, in the same place, page 12; Russian D. M. Ocherk of history of development of endocrinology in Russia, Medical - biol. zhurn., No. 3, page 64, 1926; Yu d and e in N. A. Sostoyaniye and perspectives of development of endocrinology in the USSR, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 11, page 82, 1977.
Textbooks, the guides, the main works — And to m and e in And. G. Structural bases of mechanisms of hypothalamic regulation of endocrine functions, M., 1979; Babichev V. N. Neuroendocrinology of a floor, M., 1981; Biochemistry of hormones and hormonal regulation, under the editorship of N. A. Yudayev, M., 1976; In and with yu to about -
in and E. A. Cerebral and pituitary diseases, M., 1952; e N e with S. G. Diabetes mellitus, M., 1963; Gynecologic endocrinology, under the editorship of. K. N. Shmaki-na, M., 1980; Golber JI. M and
To and N d pop B. I. Thyrocardiac heart, M., 1972; Grollman A.
Clinical endocrinology and its physiological bases, the lane with English, M., 1969; Yefimov A. S., Bodnar P. N, and Zelinsky B. A. Endokrinologiya, Kiev, 1983; Zhukovsky M. A. Children's endocrinology, M., 1982; To about-missarenko V. P. Introduction to clinic of diseases of hemadens, Kiev, 1950; Leytes S. M. and Lapteva H. H. Sketches on a pathophysiology of a metabolism and endocrine system, M., 1967; Petri-d e with P., etc. A diabetes mellitus, the lane, with it., M., 1980; Potemkin V. V., Endocrinology, M., 1978; Rosen V. B. Fundamentals of endocrinology, M., 1984; The Guide to clinical endocrinology, under the editorship of V. G. Baranov, L., 1977; The Guide to endocrinology, under the editorship of B. V. Alyoshin, etc., M., 1973; The Diabetes mellitus, under the editorship of V. R. Klyachko, M., 1974; Modern questions of endocrinology, under the editorship of N. A. Yudayev, century 3 — 5, M., 1969 — 1975; Starkova H. T. Clinical endocrinology, M., 1983; T at r and to at -
l about in I. X. Biochemistry and patokhimiya of a thyroid gland, Tashkent, 1963; Sh e r-vinsky V. D. and Sakharov G. P. Fundamentals of endocrinology, L., 1929; Sh e-reshevsky N. A. Clinical endocrinology, M., 1957; Endocrinology and metabolism, under the editorship of F. Feliga, etc., the lane with English, t. 1 — 2, M., 1985; Eskin I. A. Fundamentals of physiology of closed glands, M., 1975; Yu d and e in N. A. Biochemistry of steroid hormones of bark of adrenal glands, M., 1956; Clinical neuroendocrinology, ed. by G. Tolis and. lake, N. Y., 1979; Davis J. Page of a. Hipkin L. J. Clinical endocrine pathology, Oxford — Philadelphia, 1977; Endocrinology, ed. by L. J. De Groot a. o., v. 1—3, N. Y., 1979; Labhart A. Klinik der inneren Sekre-tion, B. — N. Y., 1971; Neuroendocrinology of reproduction: Physiology and behavior, ed. by N. T. Adler, N. Y. — L., 1981; Textbook of endocrinology, ed. by R. H. Williams, Philadelphia a. o., 1981.
Periodicals — the Medical abstract magazine. The section XX — Endocrinology, M., since 1975; Problems of endocrinology, M., since 1936 (1925 — 1935 — the Messenger of endocrinology, 1955 — 1966 — Problems of endocrinology and hormonal therapy); Acta endocrinologica, K0benhavn, since 1948; Clinical Endocrinology, Oxford, since 1972; Diabete et Metabolisme, R., since 1975; Diabetes, N. Y., since 1952; Diabetologia, V. and. the lake, since 1965; Endocrine Research Communications, N. Y., since 1976; Endocrinology, Springfield, since 1917; Excerpta Medica, Sect. 3 — Endocrinology, Amsterdam, since 1947; General and Comparative Endocrinology, N. Y., since 1961; Hormone and Metabolic Research, Stuttgart, since 1969; Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Springfield, since 1952 (1941 — 1951 — Journal of Clinical Endocrinology); Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Amsterdam, since 1974; Neuroendocrinology, Basel, since 1965.
H. T. Starkova.