From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ENCYCLOPEDIAS MEDICAL — the scientific reference media intended for health workers or for increase in medical knowledge of the population; contain the systematized data on medicine, and also the fields of science, boundary with it (biology, chemistry, etc.). The term «encyclopedia» of purely European origin has also no analogs in literature of the countries of the East. Having appeared for the first time in Ancient Greece approximately in 5 century BC in Aristotle, Spevsipp, Democritus's works, this term was originally used for designation of system of knowledge and education, and also in relation to degree of education of the certain person. Only in 6 — 13 centuries AD the term «encyclopedia» gradually gains value of the generalizing work, in 15 — 16 centuries it begins to be connected with ideas of systematization and classification of knowledge, and in 1620 the English Encyclopaedist A d (J. H. Alsted) for the first time includes it summer in the title of the generalizing (encyclopedic) work «Cursus philosophiae encyclopaedia».

The generalizing works of universal and industry character were formed in an extreme antiquity, i.e. encyclopedic creativity is considerable ancient the term «encyclopedia» and the more so actually encyclopedias — the scientific or popular scientific reference media, emergence to-rykh specialists bibliologists is referred to Modern times. Aristotle, Democritus, as well as nek-ry other thinkers of Ancient Greece, without having left encyclopedic works in their modern understanding, actually carried out widely generalizing, encyclopedic approach to the questions and the phenomena considered by them that exerted considerable impact on formation of encyclopedic creativity.

Sources of medical encyclopedic creativity go back to monuments to writing of the Ancient East, by the period of formation of professional doctoring and medical education when for training and practical activities lists, or the sets of knowledge,

0 structure and functions of a human body y separate bodies, diseases of the person, their signs and remedies, ways of preservation of health, etc. began to be formed. The most ancient of the monuments of medical literature of the generalizing character which reached our time — the Egyptian medical papyruses (see Papyruses medical), Mesopotamic cuneiform texts in Sumer, Babylon and Assyrian languages, And a yurveda (see) — treat 3 — 2 millennium BC. Large encyclopedic works on medicine on the basis of Vedic literature at a turn of a new era were written by the Indian doctors Sushruta and Charaka. Medical encyclopedic creativity gained considerable development in Ancient China. Since Neytszin (6 century BC) and at the beginning of

1 millennium AD several tens of large generalizing works on medicine were created here, the famous Chinese doctors Zhang Zhong jing (150 — 219), Van Shue-he, Ge-Hong (281 — 351) were authors to-rykh, Put €ы-мо, etc. The first Chinese E. m consider «Van-thaw-bi-yao» (40 volumes, 752 g) and «Shen-tszy-tszun-lu» (200 volumes, 1111).

In Europe encyclopedic works as a form of streamlining of the accumulated knowledge appeared in the period of Hellenism in Ancient Rome. The most known of them for «Disciplinarum libri IX» of Varron (M. T. of Varro, 116 — 27 BC), A. Tseljs's «Artes», «Historia naturalis» of Pliny the Elder (Plinius Major, 23 or 24 — 79 AD). Each of these works contains materials in biology and medicine. The medical section «Artes» of A. Tsels («De Re Medica» in 8 books) which is peculiar E is of special interest. m, in a cut are stated many achievements of antique medicine.

Traditions of drawing up encyclopedic works were apprehended and developed in Byzantium. In 4 century the Byzantine doctor Encyclopaedist of Aury basias Pergamum (Oribasius Pergamenus, 325 or 326 — 403) created the first in Europe E. m — «Synopsis» (70 volumes); Large medical encyclopedic works belong to a feather of the Byzantine doctors of Aetion Amidy-sky (Ayomiz Amidiensis, 502 — 572), Alexander Trallessky (Alexander Trallianus, 525 — 605), Pavel Eginsky (Paul Aeginensis, 625 — 690), etc. (see Medicine, medicine in Byzantium). Encyclopedic works of the Byzantine doctors essentially differ from the generalizing works of the Roman Encyclopaedists. It were already systematized sets of medical knowledge written on the basis of uniform anatomo-physiologists-cheskikh and all-pathological concepts and including the large volume of the data and recommendations of practical character obtained from own observations of authors. Works of the Byzantine doctors Encyclopaedists of 4 — 7 centuries were not widely adopted in Europe, but were a source for numerous compilations.

Further development of medical encyclopedic creativity is connected with activity of doctors of the countries of the Arab caliphate in which generalizing works on the basis of antique and Byzantine sources achievements antique, preferential Hellenistic, the medicine added with the materials obtained from works of the Chinese and Indian authors, and also own observations are stated. Arabic-language medical encyclopedic works were widely adopted. So, «The comprehensive book on medicine» and «The medical book of Almanzor» Strike, «The canon of medical science» of Ibn-Sina, «The regal book» of Ibn-Abbas (930 — 994), «The treatise about surgery and tools» of Abu-Kasima (936 — 1013), Ibn-Roshd's «Kolli-get», etc. were translated into Latin and within several centuries served as manuals in the European high fur boots (see Medicine, medicine in the Arab caliphates, medicine of the people of Central Asia).

In medieval Western Europe of medical encyclopedic works it was not created. The religious thinkers of that time considering the highest advantage universal, encyclopedic erudition created many various literary compilations, tolkovnik, the slovnik applying «for coverage of all wisdom of an era» and in practice representing dogmatic interpretation of antique heritage and commenting of texts of «fathers of church» including and concerning natural sciences and medicine. Only in the period of the late Middle Ages similar compilations give way to logically arranged treatises which received the name of «Sums» or «Mirrors». In these encyclopedic treatises authors not so blindly as their predecessors, followed opinions of church authorities, and to a certain extent tried to subordinate a statement to logic of the subject. And though in theological «Sums» and «Mirrors» scholastic erudition prevailed over originality of author's work, they were a step forward in development of the Western European encyclopedic creativity, being to a certain extent predecessors of encyclopedic dictionaries of Modern times.

Development of bourgeois culture exerted the revolutionizing impact on encyclopedic creativity. Reflecting the needs of early capitalist production for specific knowledge, Encyclopaedists of Modern times begin to devote the works to a statement of specific data on objects, events and the phenomena, giving to each of them more or less detailed and comprehensive characteristic. They care for scientific reliability of these data, for saturation of the book actual data, and also for ensuring simplicity of search of the necessary information that was promoted first of all by an alphabetic arrangement of material. Such approach which marked implementation of the idea of the reference book did not mean, however, failure from the developed encyclopedic tradition — creation of the works combining in themselves all variety of knowledge accumulated by mankind. And Encyclopaedists of 18 century aimed not only to collect a set of data in the works, but also to arrange them, to establish a causal relationship between the separate facts, the phenomena, objects. On the basis of such combination of dictionary and encyclopedic tradition the outstanding encyclopedic works which laid the foundation for the present stage of development of encyclopedic creativity — «By Tsiklope-diya, or the universal dictionary of arts and sciences» Chambers were created (E. Chambers. Cyclopedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, v. 1 — 2, London, 1728), «Encyclopedia, or explanatory dictionary of sciences, arts and crafts» Diderot and D'Alam-ber (Encyclopedie ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers, pubi, par D.

Diderot et D'Alembert, v. 1 — 35, Paris, 1751 — 17 80), British encyclopedia (The Encyclopaedia Britannica, v. 1 — 3, London, 1768 — 1771). All these works, especially Diderot and D'Alembert's encyclopedia, contained big material in biology and medicine.

On the same basis also medical encyclopedic works, by the first of begin to be created to-rykh, apparently, there was semitokhmny Spanish «The dictionary of medicine and surgery» (Diccio-nario de medicina y cirurgia, Madrid. 1805 — 1807). In it according to the level of medical knowledge of that time anatomic data, the description of symptomatology of individual diseases prevail; a little attention is paid to questions of treatment, and articles on pathology and other theoretical questions are absent at all.

In 19 century medical encyclopedic creativity gained the greatest development in France. In 1812 — 1822 there was the first French medical encyclopedic dictionary (Dictionnaire des sciences medi-cales, par une societe de medecins et de chirurgiens, t. 1 — 60, Paris). This grandiose work in which writing over 80 authors took part as envisioned had to promote expansion of influence of the French culture in Europe. Prominent representatives of the French medicine, including Ali-ber were authors of articles (J. L. M of Alibert, 1768 — 1837),

A. Beyl, R. Laennek, etc. In comparison with this monumental encyclopedic dictionary the Spanish encyclopedia looks very modest edition. In 1821 — 1826 «The short dictionary of medical sciences» was published (Dictionnaire abrege des sciences medicales, t. 1 — 15, Paris). Authors of this dictionary aimed to keep the maximum quantity of medical terms of the previous edition, supplying each term with the short summary. In 1829 — 1836 «The dictionary of applied medicine and surgery» was published (Dictionnaire de medecine et de chi-rurgie pratiques, t. 1 — 15, Paris). Articles of this dictionary are oriented to practical application of the stated data. It contains many recommendations about diagnosis, treatment, a nosotrophy, the description of surgical manipulations is given. Within 19 century in France were created two more original E. the m addressed to practical doctors: «Dictionnaire des dictionnaires de medecine franca is et etrangers» (v. 1 — 8, Paris, 1840 — 1851) and «Nouveau dictionnaire de medecine et de chirurgie pratiques» (v. 1—40, 1864 —1886). In them not only the French, but also foreign sources are widely used. Treat large achievements of fr. doctors Encyclopaedists «The dictionary on theoretical and practical questions of medicine» (Dictionnaire de medecine ou repertoire generale des sciences medicales sous le rapport theorique et pratique, v. 1 — 30, Paris, 1832 — 1845) and «Encyclopedia of medical sciences» (Encyclopedic des sciences medicales, v. 1 — 41, Paris, 1834 — 1846). These editions are of great interest to historians of medicine since in them with exhaustive completeness the results of development and achievement of fr. medicine are summed up. In these encyclopedias also terminological material as a source is of the known interest to studying of history of development of the European medical terminology. The largest French medical encyclopedic edition is the 100-volume «Encyclopedic dictionary of medical sciences» (Dictionnaire encyclope-dique des sciences medicales, Paris, 1864 — 1889). This edition which is considered in many respects as a sample of the industry encyclopedia except a detailed statement of questions of theoretical and clinical medicine, contains valuable historical data, short biographies of figures of medicine of all times, bibliographic materials.

In the majority of other countries of Europe and in the USA, except for the short «Dictionary of applied medicine» of Copland (J. Copland. A dictionary of practical medicine, v.

1—3, 1835 —1858), up to 70 — the 80th there are 19 century original E. by m it was not published. German E. m — «Ep-cyclopadisches Worterbuch der medi-cinischen Wissenschaften» (Bd 1 — 37, Berlin, 1828 — 1849), «Encyclopadie der medicinischen Wissenschaften nach dem Dictionnaire medecine, frei bearbeitet und mit nothigen Zusatzen versehen» (Bd 1 — 13, Leipzig, 1830 — 1834), the Italian editions — «Dizi-onario compendiato della scienze me-diche» (t. 1 — 20, Venezia, 1827 — 1832), «Dizionario classico di medicina interna ed esterna» (t. 1 — 52, Venezia, 1831 — 1840), «Enciclopedia della medicina pratica, tradotta dall’inglese dal L. Michelotti», (Livorno, 1833 — 1842) and American «Cyclopaedia of the practice of medicine» (v. 1 — 20, New York, 1874 — 1880) are no to a being the added and processed transfers of the French medical encyclopedic editions, and the German applying for originality the 14-volume «universal dictionary of applied medicine and surgery» (Universal-Lexikon der practischen Medicin und Chirurgie) published in Leipzig in 1835 — 1848 represents processing of the French medical encyclopedic dictionaries with the appendix of data on homeopathy.

To a certain extent original consider the 42-volume encyclopedic medical dictionary published in Milan in 1869 — 1875, to-ry made Mantegazzi with the assistance of prominent Italian scientists-physicians Corradi and Bizzotsero (Dizionario della scienze mediche compilato da P. Mantegazza, A. Corradi e G. Bizzozero).

At the end of 19 century in Europe and the USA it was released several large medical encyclopedic works which became widely known. First of all the German «Encyclopedia of applied medicine and surgery» published by A. Eulenburg concerns to them (Real-Encyclopadie der gesamten Heilkun-de, Bd 1 — 15, Wien — Leipzig, 1880 — 1883), edges soon became the reference book of practical doctors and sustained three more editions: in 1885 — 1890 (21 volumes), in 1893 — 1901 (26 volumes) and in 1907 — 1915 (15 volumes). In the USA in 1895 — 1900 Stedman (T. L. Stedman) was released the original 20-volume «International encyclopedia of modern medical science» (Twentieth Century Practice. An international encyclopedia of modern medical science), outstanding representatives of medicine of Europe and America took part in creation a cut. Considerable distribution in the English-speaking countries was gained 13-volume «Encyclopaedia medica» published in Great Britain in 1899 — 1900 (the second edition — 1915 — 1924) and published in the USA at the end of 19 century. «The analytical encyclopedia of applied medicine» (Annual and Analytical cyclopaedia of practical medicine, v. 1 — 6). The last till 1922 sustained ten editions.

In 20 century along with growth of number and expansion of geography of release E. the m is shown a tendency to their specialization, narrowing of the address or restriction of a perspective. In essence only in two countries — France and the USSR — preparation and release E continues. m, in to-rykh the data on theoretical, clinical and preventive medicine, history of medicine and medico-social problems, questions, fields of knowledge, relating to boundary with medicine, are given in rather full volume. In the USSR — it the «Big medical encyclopedia» (see) which sustained

three editions (the first — in 1928 — 1936, 35 volumes; the second — in 1956 — 1964, 36 volumes; the third — in 30 volumes, is published since 1974, in 1986 there is the last volume of an alphabetic part of the edition). Each of these editions according to contents is the original fundamental work which is summing up the result of a certain period of development of medical science and practice. In France such work is «Encyclopedie medico-chirurgicale», edges is published continuously since 1929. Though this work is also called the encyclopedia, in essence it represents a collection of the guides to various industries of medicine (each industry 2 — 3 volumes having independent names are devoted). The encyclopedia is published on the system of «mobile sheets» allowing to make replacement of outdated material with new and to make additions that gives the chance systematically to update illumination of any medical problem taking into account the latest developments of science.

Vast majority E. the m published in 30 — the 60th, are addressed to the practicing doctor. In Great Britain — it «BritansKaya encyclopedia of medical practice» (The British encyclopedia of medical practice, v. 1 — 12, London, 1936 — 1939; afterwards it was repeatedly republished) and the medical «Encyclopedia of the general practice» (The Encyclopaedia of general practice, v. 1 — 7. London, 1963 — 1965); in France — «The practical medicochirurgical encyclopedia» (Pratique medico-chirurgicale, v.

1 — 10, Paris, 1953; the 11th volume is made of two additional releases — Suppi. 1, 1955 and Suppi. 2, 1958; afterwards it was repeatedly republished); in Italy — «Enciclopedia medica italiana» (t. 1 — 9, Firenze, 1951 — 1958); in Czechoslovakia — «The encyclopedia of the expert doctor» (Encyklopedie praktickeho lekare, 1939 — 1957; 12 releases in the form of notebooks are published); in Yugoslavia — «Medicinska Enciklopedija» (1—10, 1957—1965; the second edition — 1968 — 1973, in 6 volumes); in China — «The short encyclopedia of the Chinese traditional medicine» (t. 1—6, 1957— 1958); in the USA — «The encyclopedia of therapy, surgery and other medical specialties» (The Cyclopedia of medicine, Surgery, Specialties, v. 1 — 12, Philadelphia, 1934 — 1935; since the second edition, 1943, leaves in 15 volumes); in the USSR — «The small encyclopedia of applied medicine» (t. 1—6, 1927—1930) and the Small medical encyclopedia (see). For «The British encyclopedia of medical practice» and «The encyclopedia of therapy, surgery and other medical specialties» the system of updating of materials is provided. To each edition of «The British encyclopedia of medical practice» additions or appendices (Cumulative supplements), and also additional volumes (Medical progress) containing reviews of the last achievements of medical science were issued. The American «Encyclopedia of therapy, surgery and other medical specialties» is constructed on system of «free and mobile sheets».

In the listed encyclopedias the wedge, the material (70 — 80% of volume of the edition) oriented by hl prevails. obr. on an izloyaayeniye of questions of diagnosis and treatment. Data on prevention, social medicine and public health care, and also according to various sections of hygiene, including necessary for daily practical work of the health officer, are provided in sufficient volume only in the Soviet «Small medical encyclopedia» and Yugoslavian «Medicinska Enciklopedija». The volume of theoretical material is small and makes, as a rule, 16 — 20% of volume of the edition. An exception is the first edition of Yugoslavian «Medicinska Enciklopedija», in a cut surplus of theoretical data (31,5% of volume of the edition), hl is noted. obr. at the expense of excessively detailed statement of questions of biology, chemistry, normal anatomy and physiology, English «The Encyclopaedia of general practice», on the volume and content of theoretical material (apprx. 10% of volume of the edition) is more similar to the reference book for the practical doctor, than to the medical encyclopedia.

Further development of a tendency to specialization of medical encyclopedic creativity led to creation distsiplinarno and problemno oriented E. m. Starting with the «Encyclopedia of endocrinology» published in Canada (Encyclopedia of endocrinology, v. 1 — 4, Montreal, 1943) and the Soviet Encyclopaedic dictionary of military medicine (see) to a crust, time in various countries several tens E is published. the m addressed to doctors of a certain specialty, devoted to a statement of the data relating to any one medical (medicobiological) discipline or a large polydisciplinary problem. Are that, e.g., the encyclopedia of modern pediatrics (The modern encyclopedia of baby and child care, New York, 1966), the encyclopedia of biochemistry (The Encyclopedia of Biochemistry, New York, 1967), the encyclopedic dictionary on psychiatry (Encyklopedyczny slovnik psychiatrii, pod red. L. Kor-zeniowskiego a. S. Puzynskiego, Warszawa, 1978), encyclopedia of professional hygiene and labor protection (Encyclopaedia of occupational health and safety, v. 1 — 2, New York a. o., 1974), encyclopedia of medical psychology (Encyclopaedic handbook of medical psychology,

London, 1976), encyclopedia of antibiotics (Encyclopaedia of antibiotics, Chichester, 1979), encyclopedia of otorhinolaryngology (Oto-rino-laringologie, t. 1 — 2, Bucuresti, 1964), etc.

Domestic encyclopedic creativity. The generalizing works of natural-science and medical contents appeared in Russia in 11 — 13 centuries. It were or translated books of the Byzantine origin («Shesto of a dneva», «Physiologists», etc.), or the hand-written arches, in to-rykh experiment on pharmaceutical science — zeleynik (see), tselebni-k, herbalists, etc. was generalized. The last in 13 century were widely adopted in Kiev and Galitsko - In - lynskoy Russia, Novgorod, Pskov.

Along with it in 11 — 13 centuries the Slavic-and-Russian lexicographic tradition began to develop: there are first domestic hand-written glossaries, dictionaries of own names (onamastikona), symbolics (pritochnik; from the word a parable), the Slavic-and-Russian dictionaries interpreting unclear words of bookish way of speaking («Interpretation neudob learned to speeches»). In 15 — 16 centuries lexicographic traditions continued to develop. The volume of dictionaries increased, their subject, including and at the expense of medical terms extended, words even more often were located in the strict alphabet. There were azbukovnik — collections of articles of educational, moralizing and encyclopedic character located in the alphabet in to-rykh quite often contained data on natural sciences and medicine. In

16 — 17 centuries the first Russian lexicons (linguistic and encyclopedic dictionaries) made by JI began to be created. Tustanovsky (1596), P. Berynda (1627), E. Sla-vinetsky (50 — the 60th are 17 century). Under the influence of development of a lexicography and literature of the Western European Renaissance different subject of the generalizing «vrachevjsky books» is considerably enriched. In «Secret secret», «Problematakh of Aristotle» data a gigabyte contained. character, a note on a dietetics, anatomic descriptions. The peculiar medical encyclopedias of practical contents known under the name «vertograda» or «blagoprokhladny vertograda» enjoyed wide popularity (see Doctor books).

Dictionary matter in Russia gained further development in 18 century. During the Petrovsky era dictionaries of foreign words had especially wide spread occurance, original and translated lexicons were published. In 1700 I. F. Kopiyevsky's «No-menklator» was made and published (the second edition — in 1718, the third — in 1720) — peculiar trilingual encyclopedic dictionary. In Nomenklator was apprx. 2 thousand dictionary entries located on 47 theme groups. Natural-science and medical materials are placed in the groups «About the World, Elements and Heaven and», «About Waters», «About the Person and His Parts», «About Bo-leznekh, Not Relics». In 1704 in Moscow it was published made F. G1. Ik R's sex is new ym-About r l about in y m «JI e to from icons of three lingual of various ancient and new books collected and according to the elaveggsky alphabet in a rank located», in Krom the considerable number of names of diseases, officinal herbs and other medical terms contained. In the 30th 18 century

V. N. Tatishchev (1686 — 1750) made the first Russian encyclopedia «Lexicon Russian, Historical, Geographical, Political and Civil» (it is published in three parts in St. Petersburg in 1793).

In the second half 18 — the beginning of 19 century domestic doctors and the profes-litter-physicians paid to development of the Russian medical terminology, creation of the Russian medical terminological dictionaries much attention. In 1783 and in 1785 the medical terminological dictionaries made N. M. Ambodiky-Maksimovich were published in St. Petersburg. In the first — «The anatomist and to about - f and z and about l about and h e with to about m the dictionary» it is described apprx. 4 thousand terms, in the second — «By Mediko-patologiko-hi-rurgicheskom the dictionary», according to the author, names of the diseases and their symptoms staying in a human body and also the devices, operations, bandagings applied in surgery to performance of certain manipulations» were collected «. A. P. Protasov and N. Ya. Ozeretskovsky (see t. 29, additional materials) anatomofiziologichesky and medical articles were written to the first Academy dictionary of Russian «the Dictionary of Academy Russian» (1789 — 1794). In the Dictionary it is described St. 600 medical terms both Russian common, and borrowed a Greek-Latin origin; each term is supplied with the full and carefully formulated definition. In 1835 in St. Petersburg «The medical dictionary explaining the Greek and Latin terms accepted in medicine with addition of short biographic sketches of the famous ancient doctors», Ob-va made by the founder and the first secretary of the Russian doctors was published in St. Petersburg A. N. Nikitin. Creation of this dictionary read out by an important stage in specification and systematization of the Russian medical terminology and in development domestic medical from l about in and r but - z N niklo p e d and h e with to about about creativity.

«The encyclopedic medical lexicon made by members of Society of the Russian doctors, interns of the first military and overland hospital A was the first attempt of the edition of the original medical encyclopedia in Russian. P. Ley, D. K. Tarasov and

II. And. Strelkoveky» (St. Petersburg, 1842 — 1845). In total 4 published parts of these work are supplied with illustrations and the bibliography (foreign). The edition stopped because of financial difficulties.

In 1881 I. F. Tsion and Y. M. Gol-denberg announced a subscription for «The real encyclopedia of medical sciences» (transfer of the first edition of the encyclopedia of Eylenburga), but only the first volume was published (5 releases, St. Petersburg, 1881 — 1882).

Transfer of the second edition of the encyclopedia of Eylenburga was put in a basis of the following medical encyclopedic edition in Russian of «The real encyclopedia of medical sciences, the medicochirurgical dictionary with additions and changes for the latest sources». At the same time to 1/3 volumes of the edition it was the share of the original articles of the Russian authors and articles borrowed from other dictionaries. The edition was edited at first by M. I. Afanasyev, and then board of specialists under the leadership of A. G. Feyn-berg. This encyclopedia which appeared in 23 volumes was the only medical encyclopedia finished before revolution in Russian.

In 1909 under L. V. Blu-menau's edition «The real encyclopedia of applied medicine, the medicochirurgical dictionary for practical doctors» began to appear. The publishing house resorted to transfer, the fourth German edition of the encyclopedia of Eylenburga with additions of the Russian authors this time again. Due to the beginning of World War I the edition was interrupted in 1915 (the last the 17th volume was published, to-ry came to an end with the article «Myelosyringosis»).

The great October socialist revolution which marked the beginning of unknown progress of economy, science and culture in our country created necessary premises and for development of encyclopedic creativity. V. I. Lenin who set in pre-revolutionary years the task of creation of originally Marxist encyclopedia stood at the origins of development of encyclopedic matter in the USSR. V. I. Lenin and his closest associates directed many efforts to creation of Bolshevist reference and encyclopedic books, they possess an initiative of preparation of the first Soviet dictionary and help and encyclopedic editions. For childbirth of the Soviet power in our country the system entsik by l about 11 e dichy ky editions is created, a vklyuchayushcha I pound mental are universal;'. industry and republican;» N tsi to; yunedin (see. Soviet entsik.:< \ •.7i). P r11 it creation of the encyclopedia of new type was followed by radical restructurings in about. v ‘tp encyclopedic TVORCH (h hypermarket, the essence to-rykh consists in the sovereign of i ionic character to an entsiklopedicha to< go affairs in the USSR, the analysis and synthesis of achievements of science, art and various fields of practical activities from positions of dialectic materialism, mass character and multitargeting of the Soviet enktsiklopediya. Basic feature of the Soviet encyclopedias is also their live communication with problems of the present. They not just generalize and systematize the accumulated knowledge, but also analyze them from the point of view of the tasks facing the Soviet people at this or that stage of socialist construction. Thanks to it the Soviet encyclopedias promote socialist transformations, are powerful weapon in fight for social and cultural progress.

The Soviet medical encyclopedias are among the first Soviet industry encyclopedias. Need of their creation was dictated by specific objectives of construction of the Soviet health care. It is known that formation of the Soviet health care took place during the most difficult period of life of our country. On fronts of civil war, in fight against economic ruin, hunger and epidemics the issue of the existence of the young socialist state was resolved. And though from 1918 for 1925 the fundamental principles of the Soviet health care were legislatively issued, epidemics are liquidated, the foundation of the major health services is laid, medical education and the Soviet medical science, favorable conditions for systematic development of the Soviet health care were created only after end of the recovery period. To the middle of the 20th, despite undoubted achievements, possibilities of the Soviet health care were not sufficient for satisfaction of needs of the population for medical care and sanitary and anti-epidemic providing. Widespread introduction of the preventive direction was slowed down by a lack of material resources, shots of the doctors familiar with preventive fundamentals of medical medicine and questions of the social help. The acute need for development of methodological and social problems of medicine for the generalizing work which is containing not only data on a state and achievements of medical science, but also their assessment from positions of dialectic materialism and the principles of socialist health care, and also including the considerable volume of data of social and hygienic and preventive character was felt. The first edition of the Big Medical Encyclopedia (BME) had to become such work. Thus, the first Soviet medical encyclopedia already had to play an important role in the solution of the most responsible tasks facing health care and medical science. Preparation of the edition began in 1926. The leading scientists and an orga-nizatoryzdravookhraneniya under the direction of editorial bureau were involved in working on with it, to-rogo as the editor-in-chief the eminent person of the Communist Party and Soviet state, one of founders of the Soviet social hygiene and the Soviet health care N. A. Semashko was at the head.

The first BME (1928—1936) edition became in many respects the encyclopedia of new type. For the first time the industry encyclopedia not only contained scientific data, but also openly expressed ideological positions of the socialist state, intended not only for information service and enrichment of readers professional knowledge, but also for their ideological and moral education, armed doctors with necessary material for active fight for unity of the Soviet medicine, for creation of socialist health care, for a socialist way of life. In the course of working on the first BME edition developed and realized the fundamental methodical and organizational principles of preparation of encyclopedic editions, to-rymi the Soviet physicians Encyclopaedists are guided to a crust, time, the new form of encyclopedic systematization of material which allowed to combine a scientific and help and general education orientation of the encyclopedia is implemented. The last allows the Soviet physicians-en-tsiklopedistam to continue unlike most of the foreign colleagues the edition of the fundamental multivolume medical encyclopedias addressed not only to the practicing doctors, but also doctors who are engaged in scientific, pedagogical, organizational activity and also the representatives of other specialties (to biologists, chemists, etc.) working in the field of medicine and health care.

40th and 50th were marked by rapid development of a scientific and technological revolution. Progress of natural sciences and the equipment, fundamental opening in the field of physics, to chemistry and biology formed a basis for change of level of researches and new theoretical generalizations in various industries of knowledge, and sopractical activities, including willows to medicine. On the basis of more perfect methods of a research the medical science was enriched with the large opening which changed many ideas of essence and mechanisms fiziol. and patol. processes; there were new medical specialties, recent trends of a scientific medical research; more perfect diagnostic methods, treatments and prevention were developed and implemented. Results of development of medical science and fields of knowledge, boundary with it, and also socialist health care for more than twenty-year period were brought in the second BME edition (1956 — 1964, 36 volumes and 2 volumes of indexes;

editor-in-chief A. N. Bakulev). This edition was based on the same principles, as the first, but in it methodical receptions, the help device were improved, printing execution is improved. According to increase in the level of development of science the contents of articles significantly changed. Since the beginning of working on the second BME (1954) edition created the Main editorial office BME — the specialized nauchnoredaktsionny institution of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences which is carrying out scientific and methodical and scientific and editorial preparation of the Soviet medical encyclopedic editions, and also research in the field of the theory and history of medical encyclopedic creativity (see. Big medical encyclopedia, BME as nauchnoredaktsionny establishment). For updating and addition of materials of the second BME edition in 1968, 1969 and 1971 Year-books of BME were published (see).

Since 1974 according to the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of health care and development of medical science in the country» (1968) appearance of the third BME edition in 30 volumes began (editor-in-chief B. V. Petrovsky). In the course of preparation of this edition not only the slovnik, but many scientific and methodical installations underwent essential review, the differentiated approach to extent of detailing of materials providing more detailed statement of questions, the most important and perspective in the practical, theoretical and ideological relations is accepted. The principle of relative independence of the published materials is implemented, at Krom each element of article (a definition, illustrations, tables) are redaktsionno made out so that the reader if necessary could use them without preliminary acquaintance to article in general. Changes are made to an order of editing materials, creation of articles, the publication of summary tables widely practices. The new method of thematic planning is developed and implemented (The big medical encyclopedia, planning of the encyclopedia, t. 10, additional materials). In the third edition is much wider, than in the second, materials of ideological and social character are published. For the first time in practice of medical encyclopedic business the cycle of articles devoted to philosophical problems of biology and medicine is prepared. Much attention is paid to publicizing of activity of the CPSU and Soviet state in the field of health protection of the Soviet people (see the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Lenin and health care, etc.), to reflection of the qualitative changes in the level of medical aid and scheduled maintenance which resulted from adoption of the Constitution of the USSR (1977), implementation of plans of the tenth and eleventh five-years periods, orientation of all published materials to performance of the tasks facing the Soviet health care in connection with decisions of party congresses, plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU, resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR including. «About measures for further improvement of national health care» and «About additional measures for improvement of public health care» (see. Comprehensive program of works on strengthening of prevention of diseases and to strengthening of health of the population, t. 29, Food programme, Prevention, Prevention primary, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, etc.).

Except BME in 1982 — 1984 the release of other fundamental scientific reference media — the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Medical Terms (EDMT) in three volumes is made (editor-in-chief B. V. Petrovsky). The dictionary — the first in domestic practice scientific arch of domestic medical terminology; it was result of a lot of work of the Soviet scientists and staff of the Main editorial office BME on streamlining and unification of the medical terminology which was especially intensively carried out to the last decade. In ESMT it is described apprx. 60 thousand

terms relating to medicine and areas of knowledge, boundary with it; the majority of the terms included in the Dictionary has close to normative character both from the point of view of their writing and the use, and from the point of view of definition of a concept (see Terminology medical, the Encyclopaedic dictionary of medical terms).


Along with fundamental medical encyclopedias in the USSR the encyclopedic works intended for various categories of health workers and also for a gigabyte are published. education of the population. So, the edition in 1946 — 1950 was a considerable event in the history of the Soviet military medicine. The encyclopedic dictionary of military medicine in six volumes (editor-in-chief E. I. Smirnov) and in 1953 — the Encyclopaedic medical reference book for military paramedics (the editor-in-chief N. I. Zava-lishin), in to-rykh the experience of the Soviet medicine accumulated in days of the Great Patriotic War found reflection (see. The encyclopedic dictionary of military medicine, the Encyclopaedic medical reference book for military paramedics).

For practical doctors were prepared and published the six-volume «Small encyclopedia of applied medicine» (1927 — 1930, the editor-in-chief V. P. Osipov), the Small Medical Encyclopedia (SME) in twelve volumes (1965 — 1970, the editor-in-chief of 1 — 6 volumes A. N. Bakulev, 7 — 12 volumes — B. V. Petrovsky). MME is intended for the help to practical doctors in daily medical and scheduled maintenance. Theoretical data in it are stated only in the volume providing the correct understanding of the observed phenomena. The necessary information on diagnosis, treatment and the prevention of diseases, urgent and ambulance, the organizations of health care is fullestly supplied, pharmaceuticals, resorts etc. are described. The 12th volume included the special section containing various tables, including differentsialnodiagnostichesky on acute management at various diseases, tables of anti-epidemic actions, etc. (see. Small medical encyclopedia).

In 1972 — 1974 the first in world practice special encyclopedic edition for average medical personnel — the three-volume Short medical encyclopedia (editor-in-chief B. V. Petrovsky) is issued. The reference and practical character are instructed here in the volume providing the correct performance of preventive, diagnostic, medical and other actions by the average medic. Questions of the pre-medical help to victims in case of accidents and natural disasters, data by a technique and technique of the hygienic and anti-epidemic events held in life and on production are especially in detail stated (see. Short medical encyclopedia).

For a gigabyte. education and increase in level dignity. cultures of the population in the USSR periodically are issued the popular medical encyclopedias (PME). The first release of PME (1961 — 1969) sustained seven editions (1 — 5 editions — 1961 — 1966, editors-in-chief

A. N. Bakulev and F. N. Petrov;

the 6th and 7th — 1968 and 1969, editors-in-chief A. F. Serenko and F. N. Petrov). This release of PME was well met by readers. However existence in its articles of data, to-rye insufficient concreteness of preventive recommendations, and also the changed approach to carrying out a dignity could be used for self-treatment. promotion resulted in need of radical review of scientific and methodical bases of PME, the principles of selection of material and creation of articles for it. Such review was carried out in the course of preparation of the second release of PME.

The second release of PME (1979 — 1984, four editions, the editor-in-chief B. V. Petrovsky) was conceived as the fundamental popular scientific edition about health and a healthy lifestyle of the person, about conditions and factors of preservation and promotion of health. Articles placed in the second release of PME contain scientific recommendations about preservation of health, working capacity and a creative power, achievement of longevity. The important place is taken by data on origins of the most widespread diseases and a practical advice according to their prevention; the recommendations concerning first-aid treatment at acute states and accidents, personal hygiene, hygiene in life at work and in public places, rules of maintenance of housing and workrooms, a gigabyte are made. requirements to furniture, equipment, lighting, heating, ventilation, gigabyte. care of animals. The big place is allocated to such subjects as questions of marriage and a family, hygiene of sex life, hygiene of the woman, care of children of all age, the rational mode for the child, his food, physical and sex education of teenagers, a diet and a diet of people of different age and various professions, health regulations of cooking and storage of food stuffs, a role of physical culture, sport and a hardening of an organism, reasonable alternation of work and rest, etc. (see. Popular medical encyclopedia). The second release of PME was highly appreciated by readers and the medical public. In 1981 — 1982 its transfer into Greek and the edition in Greece is made.

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