The ENCYCLOPAEDIC DICTIONARY of MEDICAL TERMS (EDMT) — the fundamental Soviet scientific reference media containing the set of the terms applied in modern medical lexicon.
The dictionary is published in 1982 — 1984 with a circulation of 100 thousand copies. In three of its volumes it is placed in alphabetical order apprx. 60 thousand terms used in medicine and the industries of knowledge, adjacent to it. Such edition is carried out for the first time in domestic practice. The dictionary is addressed to doctors and scientists in the field of medicine and the industries of knowledge, related with it, to teachers, students of medical educational institutions and workers of the press.
Rapid development of science, including medicine, is followed by continuous ever-increasing replenishment of medical terminological fund. However so far this process is not arranged. New terms form spontaneously, sometimes without traditions and standards of the Russian literary language, rules of writing in the Russian transcription of foreign-language words, in particular own names. Scientific development of the same problems by specialists of various profile, the known dissociation of these researches quite often lead to parallel emergence of several terms designating the same concept; regarding cases different specialists put various contents in the same terms. Besides, in connection with development of medicine scientific ideas of essence of this or that earlier known process, the phenomenon naturally change that leads to change of value of the corresponding term, to discrepancies, and sometimes and to the wrong understanding of the term. It finally has an adverse effect on development of medical science (see Terminology medical).
The listed circumstances caused the necessity to systematize, arrange domestic medical terminology. For this purpose the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences formed permanent body — the Main terminological commission of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, having assigned to it a problem of streamlining of domestic medical terminology, and further and its rationing. In development of this task the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences charged to the Main edition of the Big medical encyclopedia to prepare and publish «The encyclopedic dictionary of medical terms».
ESMT has no predecessors. It generated huge difficulties during the formation and systematization of terminological fund, nauchnoredaktsionny preparation of the Dictionary. The big group of scientists and specialists of the Main editorial office BME took part in writing and scientific editing articles. The terms characterizing all fields and sections of medicine, medical and medicobiological disciplines, the major doctrines and theories of medicine, organizational forms are rather fully presented to ESMT to lay down. - the prof. of the help to the population and San epid. services of the USSR; morfol. elements of fabrics and human organs at different stages of development of an organism, them patol. changes; fiziol. and patol. the processes proceeding in an organism; diseases and patol. the states which are observed at the person, the most important forms of their current and diagnostic characters; activators and carriers of infectious diseases; environmental factors, well or negatively influencing a human body, indicators their gigabyte. rationing and estimates; diagnostic methods, treatments and prevention of diseases; group names of pharmaceuticals, and also reactants, mediums, devices, tools and other technical devices of medical appointment. Except medical, ESMT included terms from other industries of knowledge, preferential biological and biophysical, widely applied in medical literature.
The vast majority of terms is supplied with the laconic, structurally unified and connected among themselves scientific definitions (definitions) available to understanding of readers physicians. As many terms have considerable number of synonyms, in the Dictionary the choice of the main term recommended for designation of this concept is carried out. The Latin equivalent is given in necessary cases for each term. ('fishing of a foreign-language origin are supplied zttyulo-giches to y with! i ra in which, ra with to r y va yushchy value of the corresponding word-formation elements in language source (is more often Greek or Latin). These data are intended to acquaint the reader with semantic and morfologiche-with to about y with t r at to t at r about i i z and to them with t in about in and N of N y x words. making a considerable part of modern medical terminology. The eponymous terms placed in the Dictionary are fed with information on original writing fa is lovely sh'g scientists, and also about years of their life, is state]! accessories and specialties. For many terms recommendations about spelling and a pronunciation are specified.
In annexes to the Dictionary reference materials are given. One of appendices — for the first time «The dictionary of Greek-Latin t published in domestic scientific reference books e r m and N about z l e m e N of t about in» (z t and d \about - the logical reference book), in Krom is collected the majority of the termino-zlement of an Ancient Greek and Latin origin used in medical terminology with an explanation of their value. If necessary this appendix can use as a grant for competent formation of new medical terms. Particular interest for physicians. the interested to problems also rubbed mnno logiya. and re to that in l the sketch of history and problems uporya-d about the h en and I medicine with to about ii that r m and N about l about - Giya yat «To ra t-kin». in Krom linguistic aspects of a state and streamlining of medical terminology are with deep arguments stated. Search of necessary terms facilitates the index of eponymous terms. Besides, in With l about in and r e and me to Utah I am a per e chn and and on that m of and-chesky terms (arteries, veins, bones, nerves, muscles, etc.) with short explanations.
The dictionary made an essential contribution to business of streamlining and systematization of medical terminology. It forms valuable material resources for specialists. interest at yushch and x with I p r about l e-mami medical terminology and dealing with issues from an istematiz of a tion, streamlining and standardization of domestic medical terminology. This edition is estimated by the medical public as large achievement of the Soviet medical science, a big contribution of scientists and Encyclopaedists to further development of medicine p health care.
S. Sh. Akopyan, II. II. Lidov.
EOZYN (eosinimi) — the general name of groups 11 y organic dyes, otnos yashchikhs I to f l yuo ra N-ks anto l about-vym (triarilmetanovy) connections. These dyes use for about to r an in and in and N and I am and about tolite. and r e p and r and t about in, blood smears, and also at production of cosmetics, for coloring of fabrics, paper, etc.
E. receive at bromination of a flyuorestsein and apply in the form of sodium salts, potassium or ammonium. Dyes of the same group receive erythrosine and the Bengalese pink by iodination of a flyuorestsein. There are various
brands E., differing on a chemical structure and water solubility and alcohol.
In histology (see) and hematology (see) 0.1 — 1% water or spirit r-ra.mp eosine of brand Y or G and brand B more often use. Solutions E. f l yu about r e with c and r at yu t e l of t about - z e l e N y m light in this connection they (eosine of brand G is more often) are used in quality a flyuor okhr ohms (see). In combination with hematoxylin: (see) or other
nuclear dyes E. apply to background coloring (see), identifications of acidophilic structures (see the Acidophilia), etc.
Coloring in solution E. lasts of 30 sec. to several minutes. Washing in water (during the coloring E. water-soluble brands) or alcohol (during the coloring E. alcohol-soluble brands) weakens (differentiates) extent of coloring owing to what there is a set of shades of coloring of cytoplasm, cellular granules, connective tissue structures, muscle fibers, etc. — from bright red to golden-yellow — depending on anchoring strength of dye with various components of fabric. After a differentiation and dehydration drugs are concluded in balm.
AA. is a part of a number of polichromatic mixes of Romanovsky (see Romanovsky — Gimza a method). A manna (see Mann a method). Pappengeyma (see Pappengeym methods), etc.
See also Histologic methods of a research; Blood. methods of a research.
Bibliography: L and l of l the II R. Patogistologi-cheekaya of the technician and a practical histochemistry, the lane with English, page 117, M., 1969; M e republics at l about in G. A. Kurs of the patologogistologichesky equipment, page 121, L., 1969.
Ya. E. Hesinonim