From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ENTsEFALOMIELYT EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC (Greek enkephalos a brain + a myelitis[es]) — the damage of the central nervous system reproduced in experimental conditions, to-rogo is the cornerstone the pe-riaksonalny (demyelinating) process consisting in primary destruction of a myelin cover of nerve fibril at relative safety of the axial cylinder.

AA. aa. and. represents approximate model for studying of immune mechanisms of demyelination. In development E. aa. and. the main role is played by cellular factors, value of humoral factors of immunity is studied insufficiently. At E. aa. and. hypersensitivity of the slowed-down type to brain antigens, passive transfer E develops. aa. and. it is possible by means of lymphoid cells. AA. aa. and. is reproduced at animals with an agammaglobulinemia, and at timek-tomirovanny animals it is absent. T lymphocytes of animals with allergic experimental encephalomyelitis show cytotoxic activity in culture of in vitro nervous tissue.

AA. aa. and. reproduces the main neuropathological complex developing at many demyelinating diseases (see) a nervous system, among to-rykh the special place occupies multiple sclerosis (see). At E. aa. and. usually there is a mono-phase form of a disease, however certain researchers, e.g. S. Stone and Lerner (E. M of Lerner) in 1965 and H. Lassmann with sotr. in 1981, received respectively chronic and wavy courses of process.

AA. aa. and. the lab is reproduced at a large number. animals by administration of the oil mix including the killed mycobacteria or Bordetella pertussis (the causative agent of whooping cough), white matter of a brain, or the cleared myelin, the main protein of a myelin, entsefalitogenny polypeptides, including and synthetic by it.

For the first time E. aa. and. received the Reverse (T. M. of Rivers) with sotr. in 1933 at intramuscular repeated introduction to monkeys of entsefalitogenny material — the spirit and alcoholic and radio extracts received from an emulsion of tissue of brain of rabbits; at the same time the disease was observed in isolated cases. Technique of reproduction E. aa. and. it was improved after introduction to practice of a stimulator of J. Th. Freund (see Adjuvants). J. Th. Freund and sotr. caused a disease in Guinea pigs by means of one subcutaneous injection of a stimulator. In a crust, time for receiving E. aa. and. use an intradermal way of administration of entsefalitogenny material.

A. D. A works to with sotr. showed that entsefalitogenny properties of nervous cells and fibers considerably amplify at defeat by their various neuriviruses (e.g., viruses of poliomyelitis, vernal viral encephalitis). Infection of a brain lab. animals neuriviruses are called by formation of the new antigenic substances having the gene properties expressed an entsefa of litas. These new antigenic substances were named A. D. A to intermediate antigens, and further in the world literature — virusindutsirovanny-m antigens. Intermediate antigens cause formation of specific antibodies and sensibilized lymphocytes. Reactions of intermediate antigens with antibodies and lymphocytes lead to demyelination and destruction of nervous cells and fibers. Intermediate antigens and the specific antibodies corresponding to them were found by A. D. Ado with sotr. at patients with demyelinating diseases.

Depending on a dose of the entered entsefalitogenny material, extent of cleaning and a source of an origin, and also it is possible to get a disease of varying severity and a current from a condition of a blood-brain barrier and a species of an animal. Usually the first nevrol. symptoms E. aa. and. arise at animals on 2 — 3 weeks after administration of entsefalitogenny material by it. At the same time at the majority of animals only the c is surprised. N of page (especially spinal cord); at rabbits demyelination arises also in sensitive nodes and their roots spinal and cranial nerves. At all animals (except rabbits and sheep) spastic paresis develops; along with emaciation dysfunction of pelvic bodies with weakness of sphincters of a rectum and bladder is observed (an incontience a calla and urine).

Animals have incidences given about decrease or its full suppression with E. aa. and. at preliminary introduction (prior to the beginning of a disease) the main protein of a myelin, cyclophosphamide and anti-lymphocytic serum. It is shown that the main protein of a myelin at sick animals possesses to lay down. action. Bibliography: Ado A. D. About new a virus - the induced «intermediate» antigens in the nervous tissue infected with neuriviruses in book: Modern probl. immunol. and immunopatol., under the editorship of A. A. Smorodintsev, etc., page 144, L., 1970; Ado A. D. and Kanchurin And. X. To a question of allergenic properties of an antirabic vaccine Fermi, Vopr. Viru-sol., No. 1, page 14, 1960; Zhabotinsky Yu.M.Iioffe V. I. Experimental allergic demyelinating diseases of a nervous system, L., 1975; Las-smannH., Kitz K. Wisniewski H. M. Histogenesis of demyelinating lesions in the spinal cord of guinea pigs with chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, J. neurol. Sci., v. 50, p. 109, 1981; Raine C. S. Biology of disease, Analysis of autoimmune demyeli-nation, Lab. Invest., v. 50, p. 608, 198^.

G. V. Konovalov.