EMULSIFIERS FOOD — the nutritional supplements used for creation of a required consistence of foodstuff — emulsions. AA. items facilitate process of formation of an emulsion (see) and give it storage stability.
Action E. the item, as well as all emulsifiers, it is based on their ability to concentrate on limit of sections of two liquid phases and to reduce surface intention on the phase boundary, creating a blanket around drops of an emulsion and interfering thereby with their merge.
Choice E. the item depends on their chemical nature and type of an emulsion, a cut they are intended for education. If it is an emulsion «water in oil» (margarine, mayonnaise, creams, confectionery fats and a baking powder of the test), then apply fat-soluble E. items, to-rye enter into foodstuff (see) by their preliminary dispersion in a fatty phase. The greatest distribution as E. items received distilled mono - and diglycerides of saturated fatty acids (see), and also products of etherification (see) polyglycerol saturated fat to-tami with a carbon chain length from 16 to 18 carbon atoms. Such E. items enter into margarine, cooking and confectionery fats (in quantity to 2000 mg on 1 kg of a product) and in bakery products (in quantity to 1800 mg on 1 kg of flour). As fat-soluble E. items use also ethers (see) mono - and diglycerides fat to - t with nek-ry organic to-tami (acetic, lemon, diacetyl tartaric), to-rye add to margarine (in quantity to 2000 mg on 1 kg of a product) and in bakery products (to 5000 mg on 1 kg of flour). As E. items use lecithin and so-called food phosphatides (see) — the phosphatides emitted from vegetable oils and also not ionic surfactant — the sorbitan of fatty acids (most often — stearic acid) which is used in number from 2500 to 5000 mg on 1 kg of flour at production of bread (see Bread, bakery products).
All listed E. items belong to nutritional supplements (see), to-rye in a digestive tract are split on usual components of food (glycerin, fat to - you, phosphatides). However, being products of chemical synthesis, AA. items can be contaminated by foreign substances. In this regard the careful dignity is necessary. control of compliance of quality E. the item to the specifications approved by M3 of the USSR. Use E. the item and their concentration in food stuffs are defined by the «Health regulations on use of nutritional supplements» approved by M3 of the USSR. At simultaneous use of several E. the item (e.g., the distilled monoglycerides and the food phosphatides added to margarine) their quantity is defined by health regulations for everyone E. item separately. Availability of the natural emulsifying substances in foodstuff (proteins, phosphatides, etc.), and also mechanical influence (homogenization) strengthen action synthetic E. items also promote formation of the homogeneous and not stratified emulsion that is especially important by production of the diluted fatty emulsions. Such emulsions is dietary fatty foodstuff with the reduced caloric content (low-calorie mayonnaise, margarine, creams). M. M. Levachev.