From Big Medical Encyclopedia

EMOTIONS (fr. emotion, nervousness, excitement) — the subjective conditions of the person and animals arising in response to influence of external or internal irritants and which are shown in the form of direct experience (pleasures or displeasure, pleasures, fear, anger etc.). As a rule, AA. arise due to primary activation of specialized (emotsiogenny) structures of a brain. Excitement of one structures (a natural way or by means of direct electric irritation) causes emergence of a positive emotional state (positive emotions) to-rye an organism aims to strengthen ^ to prolong or repeat. Aktivatsiyag other structures is followed by emergence of a negative emotional state (negative emotions), a cut the organism aims to eliminate or weaken. Biological value E. is defined by their estimator, owing to a cut the organism aims to react beforehand and quickly to change of the environment, to mobilize energy resources of necessary for the actions directed to satisfaction of direct requirements.

AA. are the cornerstone of process of acquisition of individual life experience (training). Performing functions of negative or positive reinforcement, AA. promote development, fixing and preservation of biologically reasonable forms of behavior or elimination of the reactions which lost the biological value (see. Conditioned reflexes). Thus, AA. serve as means of increase in reliability of IS of expansion of adaptive opportunities of an organism, and also one of the main mechanisms of internal regulation of mental activity and behavior directed to satisfaction of requirements of an organism (see Motivations).

AA. the person are generally socially determined. They as well as acts of the person, are caused by moral standards and it is right, inherent in each socioeconomic structure. Therefore the highest forms E. evolve social (moral) and spiritual (esthetic, intellectual) from requirements.

According to the theory of functional systems of P. K. Anokhin, emotion are a component of various stages of the system organization of purposeful behavioural acts of various degree of complexity (see. Functional systems). Expressiveness E. at various stages of purposeful behavioural acts it is individual at various subjects and depends on the biological and social importance of the behavioural act, extent of its automation, existence of obstacles to achievement of the goal etc.

Emergence of any need of the person is always accompanied by feeling of disappointment, a cut amplifies in any unsuccessful attempt of satisfaction of requirement i.e. when the result of perfect action does not answer a goal. Biol. sense negative E., accompanying any unsatisfied requirements, consists that they induce an organism to overcoming the obstacles disturbing satisfaction of the existing requirements. The satisfaction of requirement leads to emergence of other extreme condition of an organism — positive emotion. Subjectively it is followed by feelings of satisfaction, pleasure, joy. Positive E. bear the awards element for progress of the activity directed to satisfaction of the vital needs of the person. Positive E. also allow an organism to estimate satisfaction of requirement quickly. They are connected with mechanisms of the touch saturation which is widely presented in processes of satisfaction of sexual, drinking, food and other requirements. At the same time in process of training and numerous satisfaction of the same needs of people gains ability to be guided for achievement of the goal not only negative E., but also ideas of that positive E., to-rye it expect at satisfaction of requirements, i.e. experience allows to expect positive emotions.

In evolutionary aspect a source E. it is possible to consider primary forms of irritability (see) and a taxis (see). However true E. are connected with development of special structures of a brain, first of all limbic educations (see. Limbic system), thanking to - the eye occurred transition of an active behavior pattern of animals to qualitatively new level. The brain gained ability to use subjective experiences of own state as incentive and motive power of behavior.


Theories of emergence of emotions.

The first fiziol. theory of emergence E. the peripheral theory offered by James and Lange is considered (W. James, S. Lange, 1884 — 1885). According to their representations, AA. are a consequence of changes in activity of the internals and skeletal muscles caused by the corresponding incentives. This theory can be applied to an explanation E. somatovegetativ-ny genesis, however cannot explain an origin E. the highest, especially social, level. In 1927 — 1928 the theory of U. Kennon and Bard was put forward central, or thalamic (Ph. Bard), based that in a thalamus (see) under the influence of the afferent impulsation coming there contagious excitations form, effector reactions to the peripheries characteristic of this or that E are a consequence of what. According to Peyps's theory (J. W. Ra-pez, 1937), a leading role in formation E. belongs to limbic structures of a brain. The contagious excitations arising in a hippocampus extend to mamillary bodies, then through a thalamus in a zone crinkle (the receptive field of emotional experiences, so-called «Peyps's circle»). Distribution of contagious excitation from a zone crinkle on bark of big hemispheres creates, according to Peyps, emotional coloring of mental processes. Designating limbic structures of a brain as a visceral brain, P. Makleyn (1958) connected formation E. with regulation of work of internals. In his opinion, for expression E. participation of a neocortex is not obligatory. Based on functions of a reticular formation (see), D. Lindsli (1951) formulated the so-called activation theory. He considers that external and internal touch stimuluses activate a reticular formation (see) brainstem, edge sends impulses to a hypothalamus (see), a thalamus and a cerebral cortex, causing activation of these structures and emergence E. this or that sign. Offered in 1949 by P. K. Anokhin biol. theory E. it is based that E. arose in the course of evolution as means of more successful adaptation of living beings to living conditions. This property of living matter was useful to survival and allows living beings quickly and to react most economically to external influences, to the arising internal requirements and their satisfaction. Besides, E. allow animals and the person to estimate influence on an organism of various, first of all damaging, factors. AA. make almost instant integration of all functions of an organism therefore usefulness or harm of the influencing factor is defined. Playing a role of a peculiar bearing, AA. allow an organism to develop response, it is frequent even before localization of influence is defined. According to the information theory of P. V. Simonov (1966), the emotional condition of an organism is caused, on the one hand, negative E., accompanying initial requirements of an organism, on the other hand — probabilistic forecasting positive E. at satisfaction of these requirements; integral assessment by a brain of two factors — requirements and probabilities of its satisfaction — can serve as a necessary and sufficient condition of activation of the device E.

Physiological mechanisms of emotions. A method of self-stimulation (see) allowed to objektivizirovat emotional feelings at animals. He showed a possibility of formation of inclinations to repetition of electric stimulation of limbic structures at animals of various look: reptiles, birds, mammals. Such inclination often has big force, forcing animals to overcome considerable obstacles to obtaining effect of self-stimulation. Zones of most stimulation are considered as the centers positive E. They are widely presented to areas of a lateral hypothalamus, reticular formation of a mesencephalon (see), in the field of a partition (see. Septal area), almond, hippocampus and other limbic educations. In a cerebral cortex of such zones it appeared much less.

The irritation of nek-ry structures of a brain causes the expressed phobotaxis in animals. These zones of a brain consider as negative emotsiogenny zones. Their stimulation causes also negative attitude of animals to a situation, in a cut the irritation was carried out. Zones, irritation to-rykh causes clear negative emotional reactions in animals, are located also in hypothalamic area (preferential ventromedialny hypothalamus), in a ventral part of a reticular formation of a mesencephalon and a partition, in an almond.

Reactions in the absence of the objective criteria characterizing subjective feelings of animals, U. Kennon called false emotional reactions. Such reactions are observed during removal of an amygdaloid complex, hippocampus and pear-shaped bark. Clear signs of false rage are shown at damage of ventro-medial kernels of a hypothalamus or at patol. changes in these kernels, and also during removal of bark of big cerebral hemispheres. F. L. Goltz in 1892 after removal of bark of big hemispheres at dogs observed emergence of reaction of rage to any external irritations. Animals at the same time lost adequate assessment of the irritating objects: dogs,

earlier friendly, attacked the owner and children. H. Kluver and to Byyusi (R. S. Vis) showed that after removal of temporal areas of bark at monkeys the characteristic syndrome develops (a syndrome of Klyuve-ra — Byyusi): animals cease to estimate biol. the importance of the irritants operating on them. They begin to show persuasive research activity, take in a mouth and even swallow inedible objects. Monkeys become manual, lose fear: repeatedly are enough the lit match offered them, despite the expressed pain reaction. At such animals hyper sexuality is shown, they lose hierarchical situation in herd. In all cases of damage of bark of big cerebral hemispheres emotional reactions of animals gain the perverted character.

Ideas of mechanisms E. received new interpretation in connection with opening of the ascending activating influences of subcrustal educations on a cerebral cortex (see. Subcrustal functions). It is established that the hypothalamic centers as well as a reticular formation of a brainstem, have property to exert the ascending activating impacts leading to generalized desynchronization of elektroentsefalografi-chesky activity on bark. These influences are implemented through extensive system of bonds of a hypothalamus with structures of limbic system, through a medial bunch of a neoncephalon, and also through bonds with a reticular formation of a mesencephalon. Therefore during the formation E. there is a functional merging of corticosubcortical structures, in Krom thanks to cyclic interrelations excitement is capable to circulate on various structures. It leads to considerable strengthening E., and also can give E. long or even patholologically chronic character. Morfol. two circles of limbic system can make a basis of such cyclic interactions. One of them — a so-called amigdalyarny circle — through a medial bunch of a neoncephalon is connected with amigdaloidny area where there is a convergence to the fibers going from a lateral olfactory path. From an almond of fiber extend to bark of front temporal area. Other circle — septal — extends medially to area of a partition where there is a convergence to the fibers going from a medial olfactory path. From here fibers through the arch go to a hippocampus and tsingulyarny area. According to P. Mac-Lane, structures of an amigda-lyarny circle provide emotional maintenance of such vital reactions as food and protective (pain, fear) while structures of a septal circle are connected preferential with sexual reactions. The limbic system is functionally connected with the central gray matter and a reticular formation of a mesencephalon (the srednemozgovy limbic field). In formation E. old bark, damage or removal take part phylogenetic the cut sharply changes emotional reactivity, reducing or strengthening it, and also new bark — a neocortex (see the Cerebral cortex). The subcrustal emotsio-gene centers render the ascending activating influences on bark of big hemispheres. Cortical neurons, in turn, on the basis of the information processing arriving to them from internal and the environment, define inclusion E. in complete behavioural acts. In experiments the generalized distributional pattern of the vozbuzhdeniye caused by electric stimulation of positive and negative emos-tsiogennykh of zones of hypothalamic area on a cerebral cortex is shown. These changes are shown in generalized reaction of activation of EEG (see Elektroentsefalografiya) and in various changes of pulse activity of neurons of various departments of a brain. It turned out that negative and positive emotional states can affect activity of the same separate neurons of a cerebral cortex therefore it is possible to define participation of cells in the cycle «requirement and its satisfaction».

Data on the morpho-physiological organization E. at the person are received by means of the electrodes which are chronically implanted in a brain for diagnosis and treatment of psychological diseases. Stimulation of a partition of a brain causes pronounced positive emotions in the person, to-rye are shown in euphoria, feelings of pleasure and pleasure with elements of sexual excitement. The irritation of an almond causes fear reactions and rage. Stimulation of a mesencephalon leads to emergence of a condition of discomfort, anger, sexual excitement with elements of emotional pressure. Similar states arise also at irritation of front and back departments of a hypothalamus. As a rule, patients adequately perceive the changes of the emotional state arising at irritation of brain structures.

AA. can arise as on the basis of internal requirements (an endogenous way), and as a result of external irritations or recognition by the subject of certain irritations of the environment (an exogenous way), i.e. on the basis of mechanisms of memory (see). External influences can significantly change is endogenous the arisen emotions. X. Delgado gives the observations showing change of nature of emotional reaction of monkeys to electric telestimulation of motivatsiogenny zones of a brain. If in a lab. conditions such irritation causes, e.g., a feeding response of an animal, under natural conditions stay of an animal in herd telemetric stimulation of the same center former parameters of electric current depending on the dominating zoosocial activity of animals can cause absolutely other emotional reactions (for example, protective, aggressive or defensive).

Contagious excitations are under construction on the basis of specific neurochemical mechanisms. The ratio of neurotransmitters in structures of a brain substantially defines emotional reactivity and expressiveness at various biological and social requirements of an organism. Participation of separate oligopeptid — angiotensin II (see Angiotensin), bradikinin (see Mediators of allergic reactions), etc. — is installed in mechanisms of formation of contagious excitations.

According to the electroencephalogram and on the nature of pulse activity of separate neurons of a brain it is difficult to distinguish positive and negative emotions. However they have qualitative features. Negative contagious excitations are characterized by long effects and can be summed up. Positive E. are short-term; they completely eliminirut negative E., succeeding them.

Arisen in c. the N of page a complex of contagious excitation through somatic both the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine device extends is generalized in the descending direction on peripheral bodies, an izbiratalno involving them in emotional reactions. Involvement of peripheral bodies in emotional reactions always individually is also specific, making a so-called somatovegetativ-ny portrait of emotional reactions.

Extent of participation of departments of century of N of page in emergence various E. and at different subjects varies. So, at anger and fear sympathetic reactions while pleasant E prevail. are followed by parasympathetic activity. However people, inclined to neurotic reactions, and in a condition of fear find preferential parasympathetic reactions. Participation of these or those departments of century of N of page in contagious excitation is defined by various reference neuro and humoral state of an organism.

Peripheral components E. subdivide on randomly managed (the movement, activity of mimic muscles, speech function, breath) and uncontrollable (action of the heart, smooth muscles of vessels, intestines, bronchial tubes, hemadens).

By any efforts of people can block an exit of contagious excitation. Such emotions were called by detainees. However in similar cases contagious excitation remains in c. the N of page also extends to smooth muscle bodies. At it is long existing E. or at repeated emotional influences of negative character excitement of brain structures can pass into a stable stationary form. Especially emotional experiences in so-called conflict situations in the presence of the expressed and long obstacles to satisfaction of the leading requirements amplify.

As a rule, pass E into a stationary form. negative character, having ability to summation. For the purpose of prevention of undesirable effects of steady contagious excitations of negative character there is a need of «education» negative E. «Education» shall be directed to ability to transfer already developed offense, anger or dissatisfaction to another, useful matter. Achievement of necessary result causes positive emotions, to-rye level negative emotional experiences with their undesirable effects.


Pathology of emotions is shown by their suppression (oligothymia), strengthening (hyperthymia), and also in various forms of their loss or a perversion.

An oligothymia (a depressive syndrome, depressive affect) — the lowered mood which is followed by reduction of motor and mental performance. Sharply expressed lowered mood is shown by melancholy with burdensome and painful feelings in a breast, is more rare — a stomach (so-called precordial melancholy). At the same time the decrease in a self-assessment reaching degree of nonsense of self-abasement or self-accusation is characteristic. The future loses meaning for patients. Thought processes are slowed down and complicated. Often in consciousness only separate thoughts of the inferiority, hopelessness of life, of the made mistakes — a depressive monoideism dominate. At unsharply expressed lowered mood (subdepression) complaints to weakness, slackness, laziness, depression prevail. The patient does not trust in the opportunities, doubts correctness of acts, hardly makes decisions, often has feeling of alarm and fear.

Special forms of an oligothymia are the alarm, fear, pathological affect (see. Exclusive states), a dysphoria, and also apathy — a combination of indifference to, surrounding people and events with lack of desires, motives and a divergence (see. Apathetic syndrome); emotional weakness (emotional giperestetiche - Skye weakness) — a combination changeable (ponizhenno-tearful, povyshenno-sentimental) moods with the expressed fatigue, irritability, a hyperesthesia (hypersensitivity to external, napr, acoustic, to irritants). Sharply expressed emotional weakness is called an affective incontience or an affective inkontinen-tion. At an oligothymia deterioration physical is always observed. states — decrease or loss of appetite and flavoring feelings, locks, frustration of a dream, weight loss; patients look is more senior than the age.

A hyperthymia (a mania, maniacal affect, a maniacal syndrome) — the increased mood which is followed by strengthening of motor and mental performance. The increased mood is shown by joy and optimism. All experiences of patients are painted only in pleasant tone. Patients are carefree, they have no problems, an excellent condition, constant excess of energy. Opportunities are unlimited, there are no obstacles for their implementation. The raised self-assessment can reach degree of nonsense of greatness. Speak much, quickly, loudly. The contents of statements are inconsistent. Easily pass from one subject to another. Judgments are superficial. The attention is distracted. In conversations patients always seize an initiative. The mimicry is live, the movements of a bystra also are gusty, gestures and poses are expressly expressive. Look much younger. Sleep a little, but the short dream is usually strong. Easy degree of a hyperthymia is called a hypomania.

Allocate special forms of a hyperthymia: euphoria, raush-mania, Moria, ecstasy.

Euphoria — the povyshenno-careless mood which is combined with passivity, absence or weakness of speech excitement. Level of judgments and the critic are always reduced. Rausch mania — the increased mood which is combined with obnubilation of consciousness (see Devocalization). Patients resemble the persons which are in an ebrietas superficially. Moria — cheerful excitement, soche-chetayushcheesya with silliness, a payasnichanye, tendency to inappropriate and rough jokes; often is followed by intellectual weakness. Ecstasy — a condition of delight, frenzied admiration with feeling of enlightenment and penetration into sense of all events; it is often combined with conditions of the dulled consciousness — twilight or oneiric.

Kinds of pathology E. their loss and a perversion can serve: so-called

mournful loss of consciousness (anesthesia psychica dolorosa) — loss of emotional reactions to all surrounding with painful experience of the sincere exinanition; emotional depletion — the weakness of emotional reactions accompanied with insufficiency of an affective otklikayemost, impoverishment of feelings, emotional coldness; at emergence of absolute indifference and indifference speak about affective (emotional) dullness; inadequate affect (parathimia) — the affect which is not corresponding or contradicting the content of experience (situation), napr, laughter in response to the message to the patient about misfortune which comprehended it.


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