From Big Medical Encyclopedia


(fr. emotion nervousness, excitement; English stress tension; a synonym an emotional overstrain) — the condition of pronounced psychoemotional experience by the person of conflict life situations, to-rye sharply or is long limit satisfaction of his social or biological requirements.

AA. the page is the cornerstone adaptive fiziol. the reactions allowing an organism due to mobilization of reserve opportunities to overcome conflict situations. However under certain conditions E. the page can be an origin of neurosises, hormonal dysfunctions, and also development of pathology cardiovascular, digestive and other systems (see Kortiko-vistseraljnaya pathology, the Psychosomatic medicine).

The concept «emotional stress» was entered by G. Selje and O. Levi at a research of a so-called distress (see the Stress). Unlike the «classical» stress developing on the basis of changes of the pituitary and adrenal relations (see. An adaptation syndrome), at the heart of E. pages lie primary changes in area of the emotional party of mental activity of the individual.

Fiziol. experiments show that negative contagious excitations (negative emotions) are characterized by a long after-effect and summation, a perversion of chemical sensitivity of neurons of a brain, in particular to neurotransmitters (see Mediators) and to neuropeptids (see the Neurochemistry). Such properties of negative emotions at the long or often repeating conflict situations define a possibility of transition of negative contagious excitation to a form of so-called congestive stationary contagious excitation, a cut can remain in c. N of page even after elimination of the corresponding conflict situation. Steady contagious excitation gains ability to continuous activation of brain structures and various somatovegetativny processes, and in the presence of the corresponding weak link in an organism it can exert pathogenic impact both on functions of a brain, and on implementation of separate somatic or vegetative functions.

The conflict situations causing E. pages at the person, generally are under construction on a social basis (the social conflicts). In the conditions of scientific and technical progress, at increase of rate of life, information overloads, a hypodynamia of people is exposed to psychoemotional overloads more and more. Therefore it is necessary to develop measures of social and medical character for the purpose of the prevention of disturbances fiziol. functions of the person in these conditions. The solution of this task is helped by experimental modeling and a research of the nature of an emotional stress on animals.

In 1956 D. I. Miminoshvili for the first time showed value of a conflict situation in development of arterial hypertension and myocardial infarction in monkeys at artificial disturbance of their gregarious hierarchy.

In researches on animals nek-ry all-biological patterns of development E are found out. page. In the same conflict situations (a violent immobilization of an animal, restriction of satisfaction biol. requirements etc.) steady individuals, with another — unstable, predisposed to disturbances various fiziol are revealed, on the one hand. functions. In the conditions of E. the page at certain animals occurs development of neurosises (see Neurosises), there are disturbances of action of the heart, formation of steady arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, nephrosclerosis, cankers of a stomach, change in coagulant system of blood are observed, frustration of immune system are revealed. The nature of change of the ABP as a result of consecutive repeated irritation of the negative emotsiogenny centers of ventromedi-alny departments of a hypothalamus at the immobilized animals reflects their stability to E. page. Steady to E. pages animals in response to the repeating electric irritations of a hypothalamus answer with preferential pressor and depressor vascular reactions. Unstable to E. page animals show in this case preferential pressor reactions. Decrease or increase of the general level of blood pressure in the conditions of E. the page is an adverse predictive sign. The behavior pattern of animals can also reflect their stability to E in an unfamiliar situation. page. In particular, at rats, the most sensitive to development E. the page, in a new situation is observed increase in a physical activity.

In genesis E. page as show fiziol. experiments, the leading role belongs to primary changes of activity of a number of structures of a brain. So, hypertensive vascular reaction at stimulation of the negative emotsiogenny centers of ventromedialny department of a hypothalamus at the immobilized animals can amplify at destruction or functional switching off of basolateral area of an almond and be weakened at destruction of area of a partition and reticular formation (see) mesencephalon. Experimental bilateral destruction of a reticular formation of a mesencephalon at the level of front hillocks a chetverokholmiya interferes with development in animals at a chronic emotional stress of arterial hypertension and to increase in blood of maintenance of cortisol.

Increase in resistance to stressogenny irritations can be reached not only physical and pharmacological means, but also so-called behavioural actions. In scientific literature the term «behavioural medicine» was widely adopted. Supporters of «behavioural medicine» try to apply, especially to psychosomatic diseases, not medicinal methods of treatment connected with special proyets ~ silly women: autogenic training, breathing exercises, hypnosis, relaxation etc. The theoretical foundation of «behavioural medicine» is laid also. P. Pavlov, to-ry on the basis of a method of conditioned reflexes (see), not only showed a possibility of receiving experimental neurosises at animals (see Neurosises experimental), but also showed ways of their «behavioural» elimination.

Special fiziol. experiments confirm value of positive emotions as powerful anti-stressornogo a factor. When the negative emotional states caused in animals by stimulation of the negative emotsiogenny centers of a brain combine with irritation of the positive emotsiogenny centers, disturbances fiziol. functions are not observed. Use of a number of physiotherapeutic influences, in particular fields UVCh, and also nek-ry internal causes (oligopeptida) promotes increase in resistance of animals to development E. page E.g., after administration of substance P (see the Neurochemistry) at predisposed to E. the page of animals found normalization of keeping in structures of a brain of noradrenaline and dopamine. Increase in resistance of rats to acute emotional stress is revealed as well after administration of the peptide causing a delta dream (see the Dream).

Prevention and treatment patol. effects E. pages shall be carried out taking into account the so-called «golden rule of norm» — the periods of the highest emotional pressure at the person, even in the most critical conflict situations, are not hazardous to health if they come to the end with the periods of active recreation, relaxations which are followed by positive emotional feelings. This rule corresponds to the scheme of their behavior fulfilled by evolution of live organisms: any dominating requirement shall be satisfied. The satisfaction of requirement, in turn, is followed by the positive emotions authorizing success of search activity.

Bibliography: Anokhin P. K., Emotional tension as premises to development of neurogenic diseases of cardiovascular system, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 6, page 10, 1965; Wald-man A. Century, Kozlovskaya M. M., and Medvedev O. S. Pharmacological regulation of an emotional stress, M., 1979, bibliogr.; Vedyaev F. P. and Vorobyova T. M. Models and mechanisms of emotional stresses, Kiev, 1983, bibliogr.; Gromova E. A. Affect memory and its mechanisms, M., 1980, bibliogr.; China in -

Smyk JI. And., Psychology of a stress, M., 1983, bibliogr.; Mower G. I. cue, Civilization and heart, M., 1977; Makarenko Yu. A. System organization of an affective behavior, M., 1980, bibliogr.; Fundamentals of bioastronautics and medicine, under the editorship of O. G. Gazenko and M. Calvin, t. 2, book 2, page 153, M., 1975; Sokolov E. I., Podachin V. P. and Belova E. V. Emotional pressure and reactions of cardiovascular system, M., 1980, bibliogr.; Pike perches To. B. System mechanisms of an emotional stress, M., 1981, bibliogr.; it, Experience of use of the theory of functional systems for assessment of the state of health of the person in real working conditions, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, KA 1, page 10, 1984; Fedorov B. M. Emotions and cordial activity, M., 1977, bibliogr.; X about m at l about P. S. Emotional pressure and atherosclerosis, L., 1982; Chazov E. I. Emotional stresses and cardiovascular diseases, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 8, page 3, 1975; The Emotional stress, under the editorship of JI. Levi, the lane with English, L., 1970; Biological mediators of behavior and disease neoplasia, ed. by S. M. Levy, N. Y. a. o., 1982; Corson S. A. a. Corson E O., Interaction of genetic and psychosocial factors in stress-reaction patterns, systems approach to the investigation of stress-co-ping mechanisms, Psychother. Psychosom., v. 31, p. 161, 1979; Encyclopaedia of occupational health and safety, v. 2, Geneva, 1983; Henry J., P. a. Stephens P. M. Stress, health and the social environment, N. Y. a. o., 1977; Stress and distress in response to psychosocial stimuli, ed. by L. Levi, Stockholm, 1972.

K. V. Sudakov.