EMERGENCY PREVENTION of infectious diseases — the action directed to the prevention of diseases of people in case of their possible infection with causative agents of infectious diseases. Means E. items are the drugs capable to neutralize the activator in an incubation interval of a disease or to cause bystry formation of immunity of an organism.
The vaccine against rage offered by L. Pasteur was the first drug which is successfully used for the emergency prevention. Now means E. items are antibiotics (see t. 2, and also t. 10, additional materials), chemotherapeutic drugs (see. Chemotherapeutic means), immunoglobulins (see) and immune serums (see), nek-ry vaccines (see) and anatoxins (see), bacteriophages (see), interferonogena and interferon (see). Most widely for E. items are applied antibiotics and chemotherapeutic drugs. Many of them are characterized by a wide range of antimicrobic action, the expressed activity in the relation of both gram-positive, and gram-negative bacteria. The majority of these drugs is intended for intake that simplifies their use. Intensive searches of active antiviral means led to receiving and testing of the first antiviral drugs — Methisazonum, Remantadinum, a virazol (see. Antiviral means).
Because the term of formation of immunity is usually more long, than an incubation interval of a disease, a vaccine as means E. items are applied seldom. The exception is represented by a vaccine against rage, edges successfully entered practice since the incubation at this disease is long (see Rage). For E. items can be also used bacteriophages — drugs, the lyseing bacteria. There is an experience of use of bacteriophages in the centers of dysentery and a typhoid, however their efficiency is insufficiently high, and they were not widely adopted as means E. item.
The encouraging results were received during the use for E. item of viral infections of interferonogen and interferon. It is established that interferon is formed in response to penetration into a cell alien nucleinic to - t, polysaccharides, synthetic polymers in others of organic matters. Among interferonogen the most perspective drugs are synthetic copolymers and polyribonucleotides (see Inductors of interferon). Apply human leukocytic interferon to prevention of flu and other viral respiratory diseases, however it is not always effective, but is perspective.
Schemes E. items depend on a type of the used drug and nozol. forms, apropos a cut prevention is carried out. In some cases purpose of several various means E is recommended. the item that increases its efficiency. So, for the prevention of a disease of rage in some cases the antirabic vaccine and antirabic gamma-globulin are used (see Immunoglobulins).
The emergency prevention is appointed usually to the people who are in conditions of high risk of infection inf. disease. So, AA. the item is carried out to the persons contacting to patients (at plague, cholera), carriers of activators, or with the material and objects of the environment contaminated by disease-producing factors and also to the persons which are on an observation and in a quarantine; to the persons using products along with patients to-rye caused poisoning at botulism; at suspicion of infection with rage (in case of a sting, an oslyuneniye animal, rabid). Mass emergency prevention is carried out also at danger of emergence of flash inf. diseases (e.g., intestinal infections), in the special situations complicating sanitary and utility providing the population in cases of natural disasters (a flood, an earthquake).
The emergency prevention is one of elements of protpivobakteriologichesky protection (see).
See also Immunoprofilaktik, Anti-epidemic actions, the Seroimmunity, Fagoprofilaktika, Chemoprophylaxis, articles on separate infectious diseases.
Bibliography: V. D.'s white hares and E. G Bug. The manual on military hygiene and epidemiology, M., 1978; Military epidemiology, under the editorship of I. I. Rogozin, L., 1962; Researches and perspectives of chemotherapy of viral infections, Interferon, under the editorship of 3. V. Ermolyeva, M., 1968; Instructive-methodological instructions on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of plague, sost. E. V. Buntin, Saratov, 1977; Instruction on the organization and holding anticholeraic actions, sost. K. I. Akulov, etc., M., 1984; Fine I. D., etc. Guide to the prevention of a drift and spread of especially dangerous infections, M., 1979; Rogozin I. I. and Belyakov V. D. The associated immunization and the emergency prevention, L., 1968; The Reference book on use of bacteritic and virus drugs, under the editorship of S. G. Dzagurov and F. F. Rezepov, M., 1975.
D. T. Khokhlov.