From Big Medical Encyclopedia

The era called by a primitive-communal system — the most long in the history of mankind. During this period process of formation of human collective and person as biol, a look proceeded. In primitive about-ve there took place formation of production and relations of production, social being and public consciousness, formation of the person as public being and conscious creative human activity began, moral and ethical concepts, the first primitive ideas of the world around arose and developed, the process of accumulation and transfer of experience which laid the foundation for crafts, arts, science and education began. Practice, skills and representations of the primitive person were that initial boundary, with to-rogo the continuous progress of mankind which led to creation of a modern civilization began.

Dialectics - the materialistic understanding of history and creation by founders of Marxism of the doctrine about about-ve allowed to put for the first time a problem of emergence and development of the person and human society on a scientific basis. By K. Marx and F. Engels's works it is opened medicine and radical difference of human collective from association of animals, the leading role of work in allocation of the person from fauna and emergence human about-va on site zoological association, the evolutionary nature and simultaneity, parallelism of implementation of these processes are proved. F. Engels pointed to existence of the period of transformation of animals into people, the period of formation of the person who came to the end with emergence of the so-called ready person (K. Marx and F. Engels, Compositions, the 2nd prod., t. 20, page 486 — 487). Human about-in, according to F. Engels, arose with production of the first instruments of labor not at once, only «with the advent of the ready person there was in addition still a new element — society» (K. Marx and F. Engels, Compositions, the 2nd prod., t. 20, page 490). The era preceding it was at the same time both the period of formation of the person, and the period of formation human about-va. Emphasizing difference of groups of «the forming people» from original human about-va, F. Engels in the letter to P. L. Lavrov called them herds (K. Marx and F. Engels, Compositions, the 2nd prod., t. 34, page 138).

V. I. Lenin developed and concretized provisions F. Engels. He disclosed essence of the period of formation human about-va, having characterized it as an era of «restraint of zoological individualism», specified that the primitive patrimonial commune is the first form of purely social association, i.e. by the first form of existence originally human about-va and by that defined the border separating the period of formation human about-va from the period of the development created about-va established in what form arose originally human about-in (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 48, with, 230 — 232; t. 4, with, 36; t. 33, page 10).

The ideas of classics of Marxism concerning a primitive stage of history human about-va much advanced the time and not at once were estimated. If the provision on the leading role of work in emergence of the person and human about-va was accepted the Soviet scientists long ago, then the idea about existence of the special period of formation of the person who is at the same time and the period of formation human about-va gained final recognition rather recently as a result of the analysis of the actual material which is saved up by science and a discussion between the Soviet scientists, edges proceeded from the middle of the 50th almost until the end of the 70th. Reconstruction of the sequence, internal logic and specific conditions of emergence and development of the person and human about-va (antroposotsiogenez) became possible thanks to generalization of the huge actual material including data of such sciences as archeology, a paleoanthropology, ethnography, evolutionary morphology, V.N.'s physiology of, the geneticist, the general zoology, primatology, a zoopsychology, ecology, history primitive about-va, folklore studies, linguistics, political economy, ethics psychology, etc.

Modern data on essence and stages of an antroposotsiogenez and development of humanity in the period of a patrimonial system allow to specify our ideas of time and sources of emergence of M., and also of the nature of medico-hygienic activity during these earliest periods of history of mankind. The separate facts, the phenomena or representations of medico-hygienic character are reconstructed on the basis of archeological finds of instruments of labor, objects of household use, the remains of dwellings, settlements, burials (funeral maintenances, bone remains with patol, changes, traces of healing or operative measures, character of a trupopolozheniye etc.), objects of the fine arts (a figurine, the image of animals and people, amulets, idols, etc.). Quite often monuments of folklore (myths, legends, bylinas, legends, songs, sayings, proverbs, etc.), perezhitochny data of national M. (plots, spells, magic and shaman ceremonies), materials of paleobotany and a paleozoology, the most ancient documents of writing relating to times of folding class about-va, these ethnographies — ceremonies and elements of medico-hygienic activity of the people which were in the recent past at the level of pre-class development are a source of data of medico-hygienic character. At the same time data on a number of questions are incomplete, are often contradictory and allow various interpretation. Therefore in modern ideas of a primitive stage of history of mankind, and in particular about the nature of medico-hygienic activity of the primitive person, along with firmly established provisions much disputable and hypothetical.

Formation of the person and human society and emergence of medicine

the Rock painting of the primitive person representing a mammoth with a silhouette of heart.

The earliest period of development of humanity was time of formation of the person and about-va. «The forming people» lived in «the forming society», a cut most of the Soviet scientists call primitive human herd. Dating of emergence of primitive herd is various: if to consider the first people of so-called prezindzhantrop (homo habilis), it arose St. 2 million years ago if — arkhantrop (pithecanthropi and forms, similar to them) — apprx. 1 million years ago. Archeological finds of the last years lead to assumptions of earlier emergence of primitive human herd (St. 3 — 4 million years ago).

According to the «theory of two jumps» for the first time stated in works of the Soviet anthropologist Ya. Ya. Roginsky (1936, 1938, 1947) and become from the middle of the 60th conventional, in evolution of the person it is necessary to allocate two turning points. The first and the most important of them is noted by the beginning cannon both work and transition from a stage of animal predecessors of the person to a stage of «the forming people», the second occurred on the verge of an early and late paleolith (Old Stone Age) and caused change of the paleoanthrope by the person of modern type. The first jump marked the beginning of an antroposotsiogenez, the second — its end and establishment of domination of the social relations in life of people. In development of «the forming people» allocate a stage of arkhantrop (pithecanthropi, sinantropa) and a stage of people of Neanderthal type (paleoantropa). The last lived in so-called mustyersky time (100 — 35 thousand years ago). About 40 —35 came to the end transformation of paleoanthropes into people of modern type (neoantrop) and transformation of primitive human herd into a pervobytnorodovy community thousand years ago (see. Anthropogenesis ).

The area of resettlement of the first of «the forming people» (arkhantrop) was small and was limited to districts with warm climate (Africa, the Southern and East Asia, Southwest Europe). Hunting and the collecting of edible plants delivering, apparently, at first the greatest number of food were the main sources of existence. Only in herds of Neanderthal men hunting became the main livelihood. Huge value for the primitive person had mastering fire (already in herds of sinantrop) and later acquired (in herds of Neanderthal men) ability to get it.

the Femur of the pithecanthropus with pathology of a bone tissue.

Living conditions of «the forming people» were extremely severe. «What the primitive person received necessary as the free gift of the nature, is a silly story... — V. I. Lenin wrote —... the primitive person was absolutely suppressed by difficulty of existence, difficulty of fight against the nature» (W. I. Leni of N, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 5, page 103). Severe conditions of existence generated various diseases, reduced life expectancy, interfered with physical development. The bone remains of people of various eras found by anthropologists will bear traces of tuberculosis, tumors, injuries, ankiloz, osteomyelitis, rickets, syphilis and other diseases. G. G. Skorichenko-Ambodik (1895) considers that most often primitive people suffered from hunger and frustration of food, infectious diseases, various injuries. Being guided by data of archeology, he calls also among diseases of the primitive person arthritis, ulcers, cysts, cancer of a bone, a caries, a periostitis, etc. In fossil bones of neoantrop changes of circumarticular fabrics, growths of bone substance or its atrophy, signs of erosion on cartilaginous surfaces, overgrowing of cavities of joints and their ossification, defeat of acanthas of vertebrae, a femoral joint, mandibles, beam, elbow, tibial bones, shovels, etc. are noted by G. of X. Tatur (1893) along with deviations in a structure of bones of fossil skeletons, observed the wrong union of a rachis, humps as the results of damage of a backbone, ossification of cartilages and the whole joints, outgrowths on bones punched and the cut-through skulls. Also mythological data on physical power and longevity of the first people are not confirmed. So, life expectancy in primitive herd usually did not exceed 20 years; apprx. 100 thousand years ago only one person from hundred lived up to 40 years.

The economy of primitive human herd throughout the entire period of its existence was appropriating. Production and use of tools of hunting, naturally, promoted growth of its productivity that increased possibilities of getting of food and fixed dependence of results of the appropriating work (in particular, hunting) from the level of development of production of instruments of labor. However process of improvement of tools went extremely slowly: for hundreds of thousands of years of an early paleolith such tool as pebble with one-two rough chips on the one hand, it was replaced with rather small number of the established forms of tools, among to-rykh silicon are most known scraped, cutters and a tip. Respectively the economy in herds of arkhantrop and even early paleoanthropes is characterized by such level of development of productive forces, at Krom of a product was got no more, than its is necessary for ensuring physical existence of members of collective. In such conditions only leveling distribution when all product was possible irrespective of whom and as it was got, was full and undivided property of collective.

On a trope of the Soviet scientist Yu. PI. Semenov, «primitive human herd was not zoological association any more, however it was not also originally social organism yet. It represented an organism of sotsialnobiologicheskiya...». With its emergence restraint of animal instincts, fight social and biological, formation of the social relations and first of all a primitive collectivism began. Being collective more solid, than the herd of prepeople preceding it, primitive human herd, especially during an initial stage of the existence, kept many remnants of zoological association. So, unlimited promiscuity (chaotic sexual bonds), though was a step forward in comparison with garemny families of monkeys and prepeople, nevertheless was a source of the conflicts which are constantly arising because of sexual rivalry which were breaking production activity and quite often leading to reduction of number of able-bodied members of collective. Data of a paleoanthropology demonstrate that in herds of arkhantrop and even early paleoanthropes (so-called preneandertalets) the cannibalism had distribution.

Streamlining of the sexual relations was, apparently, one of important and at the same time most irregular shapes of restraint of zoological individualism and strengthening of unity of herd. And most of scientists connects with introduction of the sexual restrictions caused by need of implementation of production activity, emergence of the first moral representations. It is considered established that the first sexual restrictions in primitive human herd were introduced in the form of so-called sexual production hunting taboos (prohibition of sexual bonds during preparation for hunting and its carrying out). The periods of prohibition were replaced by so-called promiskuitetny orgiastic holidays. Over time the periods of sexual bans were extended so already in herds of paleoanthropes promiscuity on time was significantly limited, and at a stage of formation of a sort sexual bonds between members of one herd were completely prohibited. However, apparently, carrying out in life of sexual restrictions encountered considerable difficulties. Echoes of this fight are shown, in particular, that the right which arose at a stage of decomposition of a tribal community regulated first of all the property and matrimonial relations. Much attention to regulation of the matrimonial relations was paid by all religions, regarding disturbance of the existing forms of the marriage relations as a very grave sin. In the course of restraint of a sex instinct many installations of sexual hygiene, specific to the person, were developed, to-rykh, first of all, gradually developed prohibition of the sexual relations between relatives is among. Most of scientists rejects the point of view that the conscious or unconscious aspiration to prevent an adverse effect was a proximate cause of prohibition of the sexual relations between relatives inbreeding (see), however it does not reduce value of effects of such prohibition controlled in a sort at all, then religion, the legislation and morality and only rather recently proved by genetics.

Suppression of a sex instinct paved the way for restriction and restraint of other manifestations of zoological individualism. In particular, consider that after sexual the food restrictions which defined relatively hypodispersion of foodstuff between all members of herd were introduced then murders of members of herd and a cannibalism were prohibited. Apparently, hypodispersion of production was entered in herds of arkhantrop, will lock murders of members of herd and a cannibalism — at Neanderthal men.

The question of time of emergence of M. cannot be considered finally solved. Is not subject to doubt that the need for the help at diseases of ii injuries at the primitive person took place, however there are no sufficient bases to consider that at first existence of primitive human herd approached its satisfaction consciously. Both animals, and prepeople needed the help at diseases and injuries. Moreover, animals have certain «receptions of a self-care» assuming commission of purposeful deliberate actions (a zalizyvaniye of wounds, a shchazheniye of the damaged body parts, an otyskivaniye and use of medicinal plants). E.g., Kalmyks and Altaians well know that the wounded and poisoned animals pull out roots «a fiery grass Otyelon» and, eating them, quite often recover. It is well-known that dogs for the purpose of «treatment» eat various herbs, depending on the nature of a disease. Such receptions, apparently, also prepeople, and, perhaps, in bigger volume, than their animal ancestors owned. V. I. Kochetkova (1973) considers that at prepeople (Australopithecuses, parantrop, teleantrop), to-rye had no cultural traditions and during 1,5 million years before their transformation into the first a hominid (arkhantrop), had no noticeable acquisitions in cannon activity, systematicity and quite high extent of deliberate activity is shown. F. Engels pointed to this party in behavior of animals, speaking, «that we do not think to deny ability to systematic, deliberate actions at animals. On the contrary, the systematic line of action exists in a germ already everywhere where protoplasm, live protein exists and reacts, i.e. makes certain, at least the simplest movements as a result of certain irritations from the outside... But all systematic actions of all animals did not manage to set to the nature the seal of their will. Only the person could make it» (K. Marx and F. Engels, Compositions, the 2nd prod., t. 20, page 495). Neither animals, nor prepeople could «set the seal of the will to the nature», they were only its component. Their «practice» — only the struggle for survival and self-preservation based by hl. obr. on the actions programmed in a gene pool and, therefore, inherent in a look in general. Such instinctive, to be exact «receptions of a self-care» at animals and prepeople have genetically caused character. As for medico-hygienic activity of the person, it is a form of public practice and is based first of all on awareness of need of mutual assistance and even in the most primitive cases represents a complex of the conscious activity which is based on experience p knowledge.

The social essence of M. at first sight excludes a possibility of its existence before it was created human about-in. At the same time the Marxist-Leninist provision on existence of the period of formation about-va and historical categories «the forming person», «forming society», «forming production», allow to tell by analogy and about «the forming medicine» as about the period of its background especially as actions for assistance at diseases and injuries had, apparently, defining (after getting of food) value for the existence of primitive collectives.

Bitter struggle social and biological in «the forming society» promoted emergence of the first social acquisitions of «the forming person», including and acquisitions of medico-hygienic character. Possibly, at the most initial stages of an antroposotsiogenez together with other zoological remnants also the self-care at diseases and injuries in the forms close to those remained, to-rye were inherited from animal ancestors. In process of development of production activity, thinking and strengthening of unity of herd it is similar to transformation of «reflex work» of animals and prepeople in conscious human work there was also a transformation of the instinctive actions on a self-care inherited from animal ancestors in human medico-hygienic activity. Apparently, the boundary separating an instinctive self-care from «the forming medicine» can be considered emergence of conscious mutual assistance. Until the primitive person did not separate the help at diseases and injuries from own life activity while only own feelings and experiences were the incentive moment of its actions, the self-preservative instinct dominated. Since then, when other person when the help at diseases and injuries turns into means of preservation of life, health and working ability of other members of collective becomes subject to the help, it is possible to speak about «the forming medicine», about origin of medico-hygienic activity as forms of public practice. Such activity could appear only in the collectives which reached rather high level of unity, realized value of collective work for ensuring existence of each their certain member. Emergence of «the forming medicine» became possible only at the level of thinking and consciousness sufficient for perception, preservation and transfer of experience, only at a stage of emergence in «the forming society» of rudiments of moral representations.

The conditions necessary for emergence of «the forming medicine», apparently, arose no later than mustyersky time in herds of Neanderthal men. For such assumption there are sufficient bases. So, given to a paleoanthropology, archeology and ethnography confirm the jump of character of the intra gregarious relations which happened approximately during this period. In herds of arkhantrop murders and a cannibalism, and number of the finds testimonial of a large number of murders and prevalence of a cannibalism were eurysynusic, it was so big that it is mute. the anthropologist Veydenreykh (F. Weidenreich, 1940) believed to find possible «one of the main causes of death of early people their murder by the companions». In herds of Neanderthal men situation sharply changes: rather small number of finds with traces of violent death, and the facts testimonial of a cannibalism during this period is revealed, the science has no. Moreover, in caves Shanidar p Mugaret-es-Skhud found remains of people of Neanderthal type with traces is intravital the healed injuries which effects had to deprive of the victims of working capacity. So, e.g., during the studying of a skeleton of the adult man (so-called Shanidar I) lack of the right hand above an elbow joint owing to an injury and a severe wound of the person with injury of bones of a facial skull is established. Age of this find, by definition an amer. anthropologist Soletsky (R. Solecky, 1960, 1963), not less than 44 thousand years. Other skeleton (so-called Shanidar III) bore traces is intravital the begun to live multiple fractures of edges and a severe wound with injury of a femur (age of a find, according to Soletsky, apprx. 50 thousand years).

Analyzing the stated facts in total with some other materials, many anthropologists, archeologists and ethnographers came to a conclusion that they can be explained only with sharp jump in the course of restraint of zoological individualism and increase in unity of primitive human herd. Nek-ry scientists (e.g., A. I. Pershits, A. L. Mongayt, V. P. Alekseev, Yu. I. Semenov) consider mustyersky time (the period of existence of people of Neanderthal type) as a large focal point, a special era in formation morfol. the devil of people, in development of the social and economic and household relations, thinking, language, in creation of tools, emergence of the first ideas of the world around. About sharply increased (in comparison with sinantropy) the level of thinking of the Neanderthal person also considerable (not less than twice) increase in volume of a brain, and the nature of cannon activity testify. Neanderthal men produced scraped, the leather of the killed animals and cutting of their hulks serving for processing, cutters, and at a boundary of a patrimonial system appeared ours with trailer zatesky (so-called meat knives), to-rye, except processing of hulks, intended for cutting of skins and preparation of threads from the sinews applied to sewing of clothes. Production of such tools, undoubtedly, demanded training. It suggests that in herds of Neanderthal men the steady tradition of transfer of the accumulated experience appeared.

Consider that initiations (system of the ceremonial actions connected with transfer of young men and girls in an age group of adult men and women) arose in herds of Neanderthal men. In this regard it is obviously important that initiations were followed not only transfer of experience, but also (for men) painful tests — drawing various injuries what, in particular, the myths and legends ascending which reached our time according to specialists, by the prenatal period of history of mankind confirm. If not to take into account various fantastic stratifications (so, e.g., in nek-ry legends it is said that to the examinee bodies were removed, or his body was dismembered then under the influence of some means and receptions it became stronger and hardy), these myths give the grounds for a conclusion that in the course of initiation surgical interventions were made, various means causing a long dream and loss (or considerable decrease) painful sensitivity were applied and that conditions were created further and means were applied to healing of the put damages.

Researches 60 — give the 70th the grounds to consider that at Neanderthal men instinctive motives gave way to socially conscious forms of behavior more and more. First of all herds of Neanderthal men are not just herds with the promiscuity limited on time. According to many researchers, Neanderthal men already had a branched system of restrictions bans (taboo) representing no other than the first moral and ethical standards which were a basis for formation and development of moral representations and human morals. Sharp restriction of number of murders in herd and disappearance of a cannibalism demonstrates that they were already included in number of bans and that these bans in general were observed.

«Invention» of a way of artificial getting of fire was one of outstanding achievements of the Neanderthal person that finally separated people from animals: «... is not subject to doubt — wrote F. Engels — that getting of fire friction surpasses the steam-engine in the world-wide and historical liberating action. Getting of fire friction for the first time delivered to the person domination over a certain force of nature and that finally separated the person from an animal kingdom» (K. Marx and F. Engels, Compositions, the 2nd prod., t. 20, page 116 — 117). Reducing dependence of the person by nature, fire gave opportunities of broader resettlement, promoted enrichment of food, allowed to separate fat from meat that, in particular, created conditions for use of fat of animals in to lay down. purposes. At last, there was a possibility of use of artificial thermal procedures (use with to lay down. the purposes of solar heat and hot springs, probably, began earlier).

As the symbol of the increased unity in herd and awareness of unity with the nature a number of the Soviet ethnographers considers emergence in herds of Neanderthal men of the first totemistichesky representations, still the subsequent eras, free from mystical stratifications, and an idolization of a totemic animal or a plant. Connect with increase of unity also emergence of a ceremony of burial.

The high level of unity and existence concerning the developed moral representations allow with a sufficient share of confidence to say that in herds of Neanderthal men there was a mutual assistance, including help at diseases and injuries was given, and mutual care of members of herd became usual more and more. In particular, the finds mentioned above in a cave Shanidar allow to come to a conclusion that intravital healing of so severe injuries was promoted by rendering travmatol. grants, but not a self-care. Besides, such patients demanded long leaving, and after recovery «working capacity» (a possibility of participation in hunting and production of tools) them at least was limited, and, therefore, they had to «be in dependence» herds. Thus probably at Neanderthal men nek-ry rudiments of care not only of patients, but also for disabled people began to appear. Except finds in a cave Shanidar, about existence at Neanderthal men travmatol. grants (perhaps, such as primitive forms of an immobilization and reposition of bone fragments, thermal procedures, mud cure) it is possible to judge, e.g., according to N. I. Vylegzhanin (1932), to-ry reports that at a research of bone remains of Neanderthal men traces of intravital healing of various damages were found: correctly accrete fractures of clavicles, beam and elbow bones, shovels. With the advent of mutual assistance national M. begins to form, edges already at an early stage of tribal community the in-t could turn in mature social.

Apparently, one of features of «the forming medicine» was the known realness of views of the reasons of diseases and means of counteraction of Prichina of diseases the observed phenomena — blow, a cut, poisoning, cold, heat, defeat with a lightning, a snake bite and t admitted. and. At the same time many researchers recognize existence in mustyersky time of prereligious and religious representations; they began to have significant effect on medicobiological representations and medico-hygienic activity on stages of tribal community.

The lack of data does not allow to judge with reliability the volume of means, receptions and methods, to-rymi «the forming medicine» had. At the same time does not raise doubts that in herds of Neanderthal men not only medicinal plants were used (and, apparently, it is conscious), to the Crimea animals, prepeople and arkhantropa resorted, but also means of animal origin could be applied (e.g., an animal fat, its mix with ashes, etc.). Specialists in the field of folklore studies consider established that fantastic ideas of «live» and «dead» water (and the corresponding myths) arose in herds of Neanderthal men. These representations could be connected not only with understanding of power of terrible elements and awareness of the importance of water in life activity, but also with accumulation of experience of use as the substandard water causing mass diseases («dead» water) and the mineral waters allowing to lay down. effect («live» water). It is not excluded that a gigabyte. use of water and awareness of value of purity (systematic ablution) are also connected with these representations.

the Skull of the primitive person with a trepanation opening in a parietal bone.

Folklore material and character of the produced tools indicate a possibility of existence at Neanderthal men of surgical practice. Reconstruction and assessment of volume and content of surgical activity of the primitive person requires carrying out further in-depth studies. At the same time the weight of evidence suggests that the Neanderthal person seized technology of opening of abscesses and other superficial inflammatory suppurative educations, suture on a wound, and, perhaps, and other, more difficult surgical receptions. Really, primitive people had superficial inflammatory processes with suppuration, they could observe spontaneous opening of abscesses and the sharp improvement of a condition of the patient connected with it. These observations eventually had to result the primitive person in belief that treatment is in a direct connection with disturbance of integrity of integuments and allocation (or removal) purulent contents. Such representations could develop into attempts of artificial opening of abscesses especially as the tools which were available at the disposal of the Neanderthal person (scraped, leaflike cutters and especially a knife from trailer zatesky) already allowed to execute it. The Neanderthal person had also suitable tools for performance of a craniotrypesis — leaflike cutters. The found fossil skulls with trepanation openings belong to a look homo sapiens, but this circumstance does not exclude a possibility that the craniotrypesis was made by the person and during earlier period. As the proof of a possibility of mastering technology of suture on a wound serves the established fact of sewing together of pieces of skins of animals at production of clothes, edges appeared in mustyersky time. It is also necessary to mean that in mustyersky time the totemistichesky representations connected with awareness of the unity by the person with the nature, and in particular with totemic animals being a subject of hunting began to develop. Therefore practice of sewing together of a skin of an animal could lead by analogy to understanding of a possibility of sewing together of integuments («own skin») at disturbance of their integrity.

Many works of folklore, emergence to-rykh it is dated no later than the end of mustyersky time, contain data on the help at delivery. The facts testimonial of need of primitive people for such help will be coordinated with it. So, e.g., the fr. scientist Valois (H. Vallois, 1961) claims that in herds of prepeople and, perhaps, arkhantrop, life expectancy of women was less life expectancy of men, and the number of men could exceed the number of women. The domestic scientist A. V. Nemilov in work «The biological tragedy of the woman» (1929) proves the point of view that the majority of complications of pregnancy and childbirth at women primitive about-va is connected with unfinished still morfol, adaptation to bipedalism, and also claims that people of the remote eras, especially less perfect on morfol, the organizations hominid ancestors of the person, had to suffer from complications of pregnancy and childbirth more than the modern person.

In mustyersky time also the nek-ry measures having important a gigabyte gained development. value. So, considerable expansion of an area of resettlement (Neanderthal people got in the territory of Europe and Siberia up to preglacial zones) demanded development of measures of protection from cold. Dwellings were constructed, in the center to-rykh evenly warming center (the centers were constructed also in caves) was located, as a rule, there were ideas of the correct orientation of the dwelling taking into account the wind rose dominating in this territory. People avoided to lodge in boggy areas, constructed dwellings on the sublime place, usually near sources with running water. There were clothes, for production a cut skins of the killed of animals were used. No later than the second half of mustyersky time cut and sewing together of skins were mastered. It is not excluded that by this time the receptions providing convenience of wearing clothes began to accustom (lack of constraint at the movement, the prevention of irritant action on integuments, etc.). Judging by myths, approximately in the same time the first installations of personal hygiene appeared.

The custom of burial of the dead which appeared at Neanderthal men, to Krom, according to a number of ethnographers had important hygienic value, the custom preceded to leave a corpse of the dead in the dwelling. Yu. I. Semenov (1964, 1968) and nek-ry other ethnographers believe that preservation of corpses of the dead in dwellings led to flashes inf. diseases. It generated fear of the dead, emergence of representations about «to sweep the dead» and his influence on destiny live that resulted in custom to bury (to delete, do everything possible that the dead did not get up) at first in the connected state (at Neanderthal men), and then wrapping a corpse a cloth, and is even later — placing in a coffin. At the same time the custom of burial was dictated by the aspiration to avoid influence of the collective which died on health and, thus, in the basis had a gigabyte. orientation.

Neanderthal men had first bonds between separate herds, to-rye promoted establishment of uniformity in production activity, in the organization of the public relations and all sphere of household way. This intergregarious communication defined a possibility of sexual contacts between representatives of various herds that allowed to impose further a strict ban on sexual bonds in one (limited on number) collective and, thus, led to formation of a sort. Intergregarious sexual contacts led to a metisation, mixing of Neanderthal collectives and formed base for active melting of the hereditary organization, edges was followed by bystry loss of primitive signs and formation of homo sapiens.

Development of medicine at a stage of tribal community

the Primitive community created as result of development of human herd during hundreds of thousands of years, in turn, passed a number of the stages of development of production economic activity and social structure replacing each other. The first people of modern type lived in the period of a late paleolith — about 40 — 10 thousand years ago, were engaged in collecting, hunting and fishery, bones owned tools from the upholstered stone, a tree. The sort was the main cell of a communal and patrimonial system — a social and economic formation, the first in the history of mankind —: maternal (matriarchy) or fatherly (patriarchy). The collective nature of work inherent to primitive herd, property on instruments of labor, consumption of a product of work remained.

Change of a late paleolith by mesolite (the middle Stone Age) matched time when on the earth modern climate, vegetation, fauna was created. Dating of mesolite variously in relation to different regions. So, it is considered that the people of the Middle East passed this stage of historical development 12 — 9 thousand years ago, and the people of Europe — 10 — 7 thousand years ago (in sowing. its districts this era ended 6 — 5 thousand years ago). Mesolytic era enriched the person with onions and arrows, a fishing net. Axes, tesla, picks from the upholstered stone, bone or from a horn tips of copies, harpoons, fishing hooks, etc. were used. The dog tamed probably in a late paleolith was widely used, taming of a pig and other animal species began. An important source of our knowledge - about an era of mesolite are the remained remains of settlements; near some of them cemeteries are found.

The Neolithic, or the new Stone Age which replaced mesolite is characterized by use of silicon, bone and stone tools (production to-rykh was enriched with the equipment of a pileniye, drilling and grinding) and, as a rule, a wide spread occurance of pottery. It is considered that on the verge of meso - and the Neolithic gradation to agriculture and cattle breeding, i.e. to essentially new forms of receiving products by their production began (about 10 — 5 thousand years ago): the so-called appropriating type of economy gave way to preferential making economy. Cardinal change in life about-va, characteristic of the Neolithic — settled life was result of it; there was the first population explosion (sharp growth of population). On the basis of it a number of researchers after the English archeologist Chayld (V. G. Childe, 1948) speak about the «neolytic revolution» which was the first economic revolution in the history of mankind.

According to the latest data, the most ancient agricultural and cattle breeding cultures of the Old World arose on the Neighbor and Cf. the East 10 — 9 thousand years ago (Jericho in the territory of modern Jordan, Dzharmo on S. of Iraq, Ali-Kosh on Yu.-V. of Iran, Catalhoyuk on Yu. Turkey). Settled settlements with mud houses, the sanctuaries ornated by bas-reliefs and fresco, existence of clay figures of people and animals and lack of pottery are characteristic of them. The last circumstance allows to consider them as cultures protoneolytic, i.e. belonging to an era of mesolite. The most ancient neolytic culture of this type in the territory of the USSR is, according to V. M. Masson (1971), Jay-tun on Yu. Central Asia (8 thousand years ago).

Along with cultures of the considered type mark out neolytic cultures of the developed hunters and fishers (more rare population, temporary settlements, dwellings — semi-dugouts and tents, utensils in the form of crocks). Such cultures are characteristic, in particular, of forest-steppe and forest zones of Eastern Europe and Siberia. For several millennia gradual replacement of stone tools by metal wares began BC. In the increasing scales public division of labor (in particular, with development of cattle breeding there was a pastushestvo), the first forms to-rogo (division of duties taking into account age and sex signs) was carried out came to light at early steps of development of tribal community. Rather wide trade cultural ties were established. There came the bronze age, and with it and transition to the new step of development of humanity which is characterized by emergence of early class society and ancient civilizations. «From the first large public division of labor there was also the first large division of society into two classes — misters and slaves, exploiters and operated» (K. Marx and F. Engels, Compositions, the 2nd prod., t. 21, page 161).

Neoantropa, or the people of a modern look living since era of a late paleolith (so-called kromanyonets) had the developed thinking, ability to abstract analitiko-synthetic constructions. It found expression, in particular, in improvement of the production technology of instruments of labor, in establishment of certain patterns of natural phenomena and creation of the concept of the world around. Data of modern historical science, and in particular researches in the field of comparative-historical ethnography, mythology, conflict to the tradition [which is going back to the predecessor of fr. educators Fontenel (V. of Fontenelle, 17 century) ] to reduce an origin of religious and symbolical representations and actions only to the fact that the primitive person in fear of unclear natural phenomena gave to these phenomena (to objects, animal) supernatural properties and allocated them with human lines. Meanwhile this tradition was the cornerstone of all historical and medical works devoted to problems of development of primitive medicine. Many foreign and Soviet (E. Meletinsky, etc.) researchers, considering a logical originality of thinking of the primitive person, consider the myth and a ritual as the embodiment of fundamental lines of thinking, a social behavior and art creativity of the person in archaic about - Vakh. In this regard they speak about a paleolith as an era of mythological consciousness, under laws to-rogo judgment of the accumulated empirical knowledge could occur only through the figurative not dismembered perception of the world. According to this point of view, the primitive person has specific knowledge (including medical character) about the surrounding nature and about to themselves, having a real basis, constantly coexisted, intertwined with religioznosimvolichesky ideas of the world.

the Ancient amulets of various nationalities protecting from diseases: 1, 2 — the amulets of Golds protecting from venereal diseases (1) and diseases of joints of hands (2); 3 — the amulet of Gilyaks protecting from diseases of hands; 4 — an amulet of Jews of Morocco from «evil eye».

Totemistichesky ideas of relationship of group of people (usually sorts) with a certain animal (a plant, a natural phenomenon etc.), a cut named a sort, developed in herds of Neanderthal men, in tribal community became a basis of all moral standards of primitive society. At the same time developed fetishistic (a cult of the inanimate objects and natural phenomena allocated by supernatural properties — from here amulets, mascots etc.) and animistic (belief in existence of souls and spirits) the views which exerted a great influence on primitive medicine. The primitive person «inhabited» all live and inanimate nature supernatural, supersensual images — the spirits managing all objects and natural phenomena including and the person. Development of the idea about a possibility of separate existence of soul (spirit) and a subject image led to idea of immortality of soul and formation of belief in an afterlife. The idea of mobility of spirits promoted the adoption of idea of a possibility of their resettlement in other objects, in particular about a possibility of installation in the person of spirits of a disease.

Medical representations and medical activity developed on the basis of progress of economic and production, household, welfare and other relations, and also outlook of the primitive person. It is the most probable that originally M. was national in literal sense of this word, i.e. collective experience, the Crimea owned and to-ry applied everything (or many) members of this collective (see. Traditional medicine ). However at early stages of development of tribal community process of concentration of knowledge of natural phenomena, about diseases, about measures of their prevention and assistance begins at them: in each sort a certain group of people with more and more narrowed functions forms, in to-rye also doctoring entered.

Wooden totemic columns of North American Indians.

It agrees the tradition prevailing in historical and medical literature, the first Aesculapian in human about-ve was the woman. As justification of this point of view serve the following arguments: production of vegetable food was a duty of hl. obr. women, and experience to lay down. uses of plants, naturally, passed from father to son in the female line; the archeological finds of images of the woman relating to primitive about-vu can be regarded as an embodiment of povivalny and other functions of the Aesculapian. The monuments to early writing which included the previous mythological creativity in the basis testify to the same. The same idea received later expression in ancient cults of goddesses — bearers of fertility and doctoring: Egyptians — Isida, at Phoenicians — Astarta, at Italians — Paley, at Iranians have Ushas.

However the modern science has also data on so ancient origin of male Aesculapians. Along with specific myths of the nek-ry people (so, L. Ya. Shternberg, 1925, provides the Finnish myth that the eagle, a cult to-rogo developed rather early, brings to people fire in gratitude to Veyneseinek — to one of the first shaman Aesculapians), indirectly points the institute of initiations which arose in herds of Neanderthal men and gained further development in tribal community to it. It was, in effect, the peculiar «university» of the primitive person providing transfer of sacralized legends to new generation, beliefs, customs of a sort (tribe), the accumulated knowledge, including medical character. Extending both to young men, and to girls, initiations nevertheless on complexity of a ritual, were directed to duration of training and weight of tests preferential to males. According to a nek-eye to myths, preparation for the sorcery including and doctoring, was carried out by the teacher, to-ry veins most often «overseas», «behind the river», «in other kingdom»; the doctrine proceeded from 3 to 7 years, drawing damages and treatment of wounds was carried out in special rooms — «the house in the wood» (V. Ya. Propp, 1946).

It is possible to speak about medical profession per se only in relation to later era of ancient civilizations. But in process of development of professionalism, primitive about-va an element, in M. accrued. With emergence and development of religion the group of attendants of a cult stood apart, the Crimea secret knowledge, special ability of impact on forces of nature were attributed and to-rye gradually monopolized both religious, and nek-ry other functions, including functions of doctoring: «professions» of the magician (sorcerer) and the sorcerer (Aesculapian) were usually combined in one person towering over rank-and-file members of a community. Thus, at a stage patrimonial about-va it is possible to see sources of the priestly, temple M. which gained the highest development in civilizations of a slaveholding era. Emergence of conditions for more bystry accumulation of empirical data on manifestations, current and outcome of diseases of N about measures of their prevention of N of treatment was a positive consequence of concentration of the medical knowledge and activity which became the privilege of narrow group of people.

Scarcity of knowledge which primitive M. had promoted distribution of fantastic ideas of etiologies. Animistic and demonological concepts of a disease gained development. Echoes of these views remained in oral creativity of many people; similar representations are characteristic of the tribes remaining until recently at a stage pre-class about-va.

So, S. A. Tokarev specifies that views are everywhere widespread among Melanesians, according to the Crimea the etiology consists in stealing or an okoldovaniye of soul of the person. Quite often the nature of diseases was presented to the primitive person in the form of anthropomorphous spirits. Arisen no later than mustyersky time and accepted in M. patrimonial about-va ontologic ideas of communication of painful states with implementation in a body of the person of hypothetical little living beings, according to nek-ry researchers, formations of a number of modern names of diseases formed the basis («cancer», «angina pectoris», etc.).

The performing folklore recorded during an initial stage of writing, given to archeology and ethnography demonstrates that M. patrimonial about-va had many rational means and methods of medical aid. Interest of a sort in numerical growth and, therefore, stimulated obstetric care in survival of women in labor and newborns, edges with development of the tribal relations accepted more and more stable character. There is a cult of motherhood. The experience leaving sources to pregominida to lay down. uses of means of flora in the period of patrimonial about-va it was enriched due to inclusion of new medicinal plants and reconsideration of indications to use of each of them. In to lay down. an arsenal also means of an animal and mineral origin entered, various manipulations to lay down. character. Experience of the Australian natives can serve as the indirect evidence of it, to-rye were on the level of production economic activity and the welfare relations at a stage of the Stone Age until recently. They it is wide and with success applied various officinal herbs, poultices and bandagings, massage and rubbing by fat, bloodletting etc.

Further development was gained by the ideas and practice of use with to lay down. purposes of water and fire. The fact of use of M. patrimonial about-va mineral waters of thermal and cold sources, napr, for the purpose of the best healing of wounds does not raise doubts. Idea of the salutary force of «live» water is reflected in myths of the different people, many ritual zagovornykh attributes («plots on water», etc.), and later formed the basis of a Christian office of Baptism etc. Perhaps, the faith in gods-Thunderers not only as in generous bearers of rains, but also in healers of diseases also is connected with this representation (Indra in India, nek-ry deities of other people). Expansion of scope of fire as medical and precautionary means was also accompanied by representation about it to the «cleaning force» capable to drive away from the person and to expel from his sore body of spirits of a disease. Fumigating of people and clothes, cultivation of fires at an entrance and escaping of cynthion were accepted, extermination of parasites by influence of high temperature, burning of clothes of patients and corpses of the died people, a burning of tools before surgical interventions etc. Evolution of the rituals connected using fire, in the same way as water led to replacement of the initial procedure with purely symbolical actions: e.g., burning of corpses was replaced by ignition of fire on a grave, and still later (in Christian religion) came down to ignition of candles.

the Ancient surgical instruments and amulets protecting from diseases.

Rather high level was reached by M. patrimonial about-va in the field of surgical activity. In the archeological finds relating to this period various options of a craniotrypesis are widely presented. The analysis of trepanation openings in fossil turtles shows that the origin them can not always be explained within traditional interpretation of this operation as purely ritual intervention (initiations, «deflation of spirit of a disease»). In some cases the speech can go rather about extraction of bone splinters from a brain with processing of bone edges of a wound or about other strictly medical indications to operation (it, certainly, does not exclude the ritual maintenance giving operations demonological contents). Ethnographic materials testify to a possibility of performing Cesarean section and nek-ry other band operations. Normans of mythological times were able to heal the getting wounds of a stomach, for the purpose of determination of depth of the getting wound tasted blood or allowed the wounded to drink a certain herb, and then smelled a wound (the smell of the drunk herb proceeded from a deep wound). Both the man, and the woman could be the Aesculapian giving surgical help. Candidates for Aesculapians at many people, probably, were exposed to «educational» surgical interventions what the ritual of dedication at the Australian tribe of an arand testifies to, e.g.; at the same time use of anesthetics and the disinfecting means is very probable.

National hygiene as the data realized by people during their daily fight for existence and saved up on experience of many generations on what damages health of the person and what measures it can be kept, arose, according to a number of scientists, in herds of Neanderthal men even earlier, than to lay down. national M. Umeniye to recover forces for work, to be protected from unfavorable environmental conditions, from diseases, including infectious, fixed in customs and rituals of a sort, the tribe, concerned the different parties of life: devices of the dwelling, food, clothes, personal hygiene, burial of the dead etc. These national gigabyte. knowledge was quite often more reasonable, than data to lay down. character as it was easier to notice ways of health protection, than to find effective remedies of treatment of a disease, essence a cut it was not clear.

the Gold Kul-Obsky vase with the image of the Scythian setting a jaw to the soldier (Kerch, 5 — 4 century BC).

At construction of dwellings the tree, clay, sand, a stone were used. In territories of Europe, Northern Asia, America up to the Iron Age two types of dwellings were widespread: land designs of Stolbova and on l at zemlyanochny. As a rule, in dwellings there were stone centers and eminences — «little tables» which sometimes are laid over by rollers from the burned clay. Near the dwelling in the earth dug storages for food stuffs. At the choice of the place for the dwelling special methods of identification of the «healthy» site were used; in a perezhitochny look they remained in practice of the different people.

So, in Ukraine, in the Proskurovsky County, further in 19 century with the same purpose dug out angular holes, filled a little rye there, put pieces of bread, put on a glass of water; if next day found bread and water not changed, the place was considered suitable that the house stood «a long century». Possibilities of heat treatment of food sharply increased with introduction to use of ceramic ware (at a boundary meso - and the Neolithic), the range of foodstuff and technology of their preparation respectively changed.

Originally ceramic vessels were the huge sizes, had a conic bottom and intended for storage of products. Still earlier (monuments of a late paleolith) stone zernoterka — predecessors of millstones were applied. Evolution and in production of clothes, especially with emergence on the verge of meso - and the Neolithic of weaving was noted. Important gigabyte. the skill of storage of food stuffs p waters in the closed tanks with use of the herbs which had property to frighten off evil spirits, i.e. to slow down processes of rotting, etc. became acquisition of the primitive person. In the hygienic and medical purposes the baths which connected «cleaning forces» of water and fire were used.

The gradual complication of ceremonial actions connected with development of religious representations is characteristic of primitive M. The ceremony, on the one hand, set the acquired knowledge and receptions and by that promoted their transfer from generation to generation; on the other hand, canonizing them, establishing the strict sequence of a medical ritual, it in a certain measure narrowed possibilities of inclusion of new empirical knowledge in system of the accumulated medical experience, prevented disposal of inefficient receptions and concepts. At late steps of development patrimonial about-va religious and magic actions and verbal formulas as manifestation of an ideological basis of doctoring play the increasing role, sometimes completely substituting rational receptions (e.g., operational removal of a foreign body was substituted for the ritual imitating this intervention). By this period emergence of politeistichesky religions with allocation of the gods owning the cleaning force of fire, knowing doctoring, «the throwing germs in a womb of mother», etc. treats. So, Hephaestus at ancient Greeks and Svarog at Slavs knew merchant business and doctoring, in Christianity they were transformed to Kuzma and Demyan with the same functions; from god-healer Apollo the idolized Aesculapian from people Asclepius (Doctor) went. As a component the sacrifice to gods (spirits) with the purpose to secure with their assistance in fight against a disease entered a ceremony of treatment.

«The drag flow of science follows from practical techniques of the primitive person» — the English historian of science J. Bernal wrote. In M. primitive about-va it is possible to track the beginning of that chain of observations and opening, resulted edges in the millennia in the current state of M. Delusions of a medical thought during that remote era are obvious, but from them also M. of the subsequent periods was not free, up to Modern times when experimental and pilot knowledge began to be approved. M primitive about-va, saved up a set of the data and receptions of rational character comprehended preferential within religious and fantastic ideas of the world made M.'s basis of ancient civilizations.

Other sections of the article "Medicine":

  1. Introduction
  2. Emergence of medicine and its development in primitive society
  3. Traditional medicine of the people of Africa
  4. Meditsina of ancient civilizations
    1. Meditsina of civilizations of the Ancient East
    2. Meditsina of civilizations of ancient America
    3. Meditsina of a classical antiquity
  5. Meditsina in feudal society
  6. Meditsina Modern times (17 — 18 centuries)
  7. Meditsina 19th centuries
  8. Meditsina 20th centuries
  9. Meditsina of the people of the USSR
    1. Meditsina of the people of Transcaucasia
    2. Meditsina of the people of Central Asia
    3. Meditsina of the people inhabiting the European part of the USSR during an era of feudalism
    4. Meditsina in Russia in the 17th century
    5. Meditsina in Russia in the 18th century
    6. Meditsina in Russia in the first half of the 19th century
    7. Meditsina in Russia in the second half 19 — the beginning of the 20th century
  10. Meditsina in the USSR