EMBLEMS medical (Greek emblema an insert, convex ornament) — the images symbolizing medicine in general, belonging to a medical profession, various directions and the fields of medicine, separate medical specialties.
To the general medical E. various images of a snake, including in combination with a staff, with a bowl, with a candle, etc., images of the burning torch, the lamp, heart on a palm can be carried. The greatest distribution was gained E. with the image of a snake.
In primitive about-ve when there were a totemizm and an animalizm reflecting helplessness of the primitive person before the world around, the snake was one of the main totemic animals. From emergence of a cult of a snake the double role was attributed to it — she is angry and kind. On the one hand, the snake was a symbol of cunning and insidiousness, with another — immortality, wisdom and knowledge (tsvetn. tab., Art. 176. fig. 1 and 2). In monuments of culture of Mesopotamia (the III millennium BC) the snake is represented on various objects connected good luck fertility and healing by Ningishzida (fig. 1). It probably one of the first in the history of images of a snake as medical E. As E. medicine originally the snake was represented without any attributes (fig. 4). Later there were images of a snake in combination with various objects. So, approximately from 8 century BC one of symbols of medicine is the staff of god of doctoring Asclepius (Doctor) — a knotty stick, around a cut the snake with the head was twisted up (fig. 2, and also blossom, the tab., Art. 170, fig. 3). In one of Ancient Greek myths it is told. that Asclepius was invited to Minos's palace — the tsar of Crete. to revive his died son. On the road he saw a snake on the staff and killed her, but the second snake with a curative grass in a mouth appeared and revived dead. Afterwards Asclepius this grass treated sick people. Asclepius's staff should not be confused to a caduceus — attribute of god of trade Hermes (Mercury). representing the staff with wings above twisted with two snakes (fig. 5). In a classical antiquity this E. was not medical. Only from 15 — 16 centuries the caduceus became a symbol of medicine. From 19 century the caduceus is used as official medical E. in a number of the countries of America (e.g., the USA), Africa and Asia.
The first images of a bowl with a snake belong to 800 — 600 BC. The snake and a bowl were represented separately and were attributes generally of goddesses of health of Gigei (fig. 3 and 8) of N of Saluta (tsvetn. tab., Art. 176. fig. 6). Images of the amphora or a bowl twisted with a snake appeared much more after (fig. 6 and 7, and also tsvetn. tab., Art. 176, fig. 5). In a classical antiquity E. medicine there was not a venomous snake, but harmless.
E is known. medicine in the form of a tripod of Apollo twisted with a snake (fig. 8). In Europe (France, Belgium, Greece, etc.) from 18 century existed medical E. in the form of the mirror twisted with a snake (fig. 9). The mirror was a symbol of purity and care — the qualities necessary for the doctor.
Along with E. doctoring, on to-rykh the snake was represented, since ancient times there were also others. Ancient Egyptian god of medicine Imkhotep (coming in peace) was represented with a crosswise loop in hands — so-called bank of Imkhotep. This symbol designated wellbeing, life and health (fig. 11). Later it was known under the name «tau-cross» (the image of the Greek letter «tau» was used as an amulet). Exist medical E. in the form of the burning torch or the lamp (is later than a candle). At many people fire was considered as one of basic elements of the nature. Fire, according to Heraclitus Ephesius's doctrine (6 — 5 century BC), was considered in medicine as the extreme, all curing means, addressed Krom in case of futility of drug and surgical treatment. On nek-ry sculptures and bas-reliefs Asclepius's image is combined with the image of the burning torch (fig. 10). Different extents of rapprochement of the staff twisted with a snake and the burning torch reflect a tendency to merge both E., especially on the Roman images where the snake twists the burning torch. By the end of the Middle Ages the antique torch in images was replaced by a candle because the candle was religious attribute (fig. 12). The image of a candle was followed by sayings: «Aliis lucens uror» («Shining others, I burn down»), «Aliis in serviendo ipse consumor» («Serving others, I destroy myself»), etc. Many doctors and medical about-va in 17 — 18 centuries used E., where instead of a snake the candle was represented what the works of the fine arts (fig. 13) which reached us confirm, in particular. In a crust. time the burning torch is E. sanitary education (fig. 14).
In the USSR, as well as in nek-ry other countries, the main state the general medical E. the image of the bowl twisted with a snake is (tsvetn. tab., Art. 176, fig. 4). In many foreign countries official E. medicine the stylized image of the staff twisted with a snake (fig. 16) is.
WHO on 1 World assembly of health care in Geneva (1948) claimed international medical E., the representing emblem of the UN (the world map surrounded with a wreath of olive branches of gold color on a light blue background in combination with the staff twisted with dragons (fig. 15).
In addition to the general medical emblems there is a set private E. designating these or those industries of medicine. During the period medieval physicians in Europe were divided into two groups: doctors-internistov (therapists) and surgeons. One of the most ancient E. therapies the image of a flower of a lily of the valley, medicine from to-rogo already in the Middle Ages is were widely applied to treatment of heart troubles (fig. 1). Images of a vessel for collecting urine — an urinariya were other symbols of therapy (tsvetn. the tab., Art. 1, fig. 7), the hand probing pulse, a rooster, etc. E. doctors Pythagoreans of a classical antiquity — the pentagram (the five-pointed star drawn by the crossed lines) — during an era of the Middle Ages became E. surgeons (fig. 19). As symbols of surgery served also images of various surgical instruments (fig. 22). AA. druggists, to-rye during an era of the Middle Ages in Europe combined in the guilds separately from therapists and surgeons, there were images of various animals (a crocodile, a rhinoceros, etc.) and plants (lily), but most often — a pharmaceutical mortar with a pestle. AA. pediatricians in a number of the countries (Italy, Russia, etc.) there was an image of "the Florentine baby" — the child swaddled to a belt. For the first time this image was executed by Andrea della Robbia (A. della Robbia, 15 century) on the faience medallions decorating the building of the orphan house in Florence (fig. 20). In Russia from 18 century the image of a pelican was an emblem of the departments which are engaged in contempt and treatment of children. According to the medieval legend, during a drought and hunger the pelican saved the baby birds, having broken off himself a breast and having given to drink them the blood. The image of a pelican along with a drop of blood was used in a number of the countries as an emblem of donorship (fig. 23).
As emblem of gerontology serves the image of a century tree (fig. 24). It is not excluded that a prototype of this E. Hippocrates's plane tree — the century tree growing on the lake is. Braids where Hippocrates lived and worked (tsvetn. tab., Art. 176, fig. 8). An emblem of orthopedics and traumatology — the cracked young tree which is tied up to a column (fig. 25). An emblem of the Soviet health care at exhibitions abroad and an emblem of cardiology is the image of heart on a palm (fig. 26). In 1962 WHO offered special E. fight against malaria — the image against the background of the globe of the spear twisted with a snake and directed by an edge on a malarial mosquito (tsvetn. tab., Art. 176, fig. 9). A symbol of fight against oncological diseases — the crab pierced with an arrow of a plant louse a sword (tsvetn. tab., Art. 176, fig. 10).
The special place among medical E. occupy symbols of various medical organizations. Among them the most mass — the International Red Cross. In 1864 in Geneva the convention on improvement of a fate of wounded and patients in field armies was signed (see. Geneva conventions). This convention established a distinctive sign in the help to wounded and patients: a red cross on the white field. Four parts of a cross symbolize four valors: moderation, prudence, justice and courage. National flag of Switzerland (a white cross on the red field) was a prototype of a sign.
This symbol serves as an emblem of the International Red Cross and the majority national about-in Red the Cross (tsvetn. tab., Art. 176, fig. 11). Emblem of similar societies in the Muslim countries — Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkey, Iran (since 1980), the Arab countries, and also in the Azerbaijani, Tajik, Turkmen and Uzbek SSR — is red crescent, in Iran till 1980 — a red lion and the sun (tsvetn. tab., Art. 176, fig. 12). In an emblem of the all-Union voluntary mass public organization combining about-va Red the Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR the red cross and red crescent are combined (see the Union of societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR).
The antitubercular organizations took for the distinctive sign images of the Lotharingian cross (a cross with two horizontal lines) and a white daisy (fig. 18). The international league of fight against tuberculosis at the international antitubercular conference in 1902 (Berlin) approved the image of the Lotharingian cross of red color as the international emblem of fight against tuberculosis.
Separate group medical E. make military-medical E. V the majority of the countries of the world as distinctions of military-medical service are used all-medical E. in various modifications (fig. 27). In the nek-ry countries special distinctive signs of military-medical service were created.
Bibliography: Gribanov E. D. Meditsina in numismatics, M., 1962; it, History of the international medical emblems, M., 1976, bibliogr.; Gribanov of D. and Georgadze V. I. Emblems of medicine, Tbilisi, 1979, bibliogr.; Zabludowsky P. E. A medical emblem, in book: From history honey. under the editorship of K. G. Vasilyev, etc., t. 5, page 133, Riga, 1963; Tarasonovv. M. Symbols of medicine as reflection of doctoring of the ancient people, M., 1985; Lipp A. u. Gruber O. B. Die Kerze als Symbol dee Arzttums. Lpz., 1959. Bibliogr.; Schouten J. The rod and serpent of Asklepios, Symbol of medicine, Amsterdam a. o., 1967, bibliogr; it, The pentagram as a medical symbol; an iconotogical study, Nieuwkoop, 1968.
E. D. Gribanov.