From Big Medical Encyclopedia

EMBICHINUM (Embichinum; synonym: Nitrogen, Mustard, Mustargen, Azotoperite, Chloraethamine, Dimitan, Mechlorethamine, Sinalost, Asotoyperit, Caryolysine, Chlorethazine, Chloromethine, DEMA, Duamin, Dichloren, Erasin, Erasol, Nitrasin, N-Lost, Nitrogranulogen, Mitoxine, Mustanitrogen, Mustine, Stickstofflost etc.; joint venture. A) — antineoplastic means from group of the alkylating connections; the first drug from group of chlorethylamines offered for treatment of patients with malignant new growths. Hydrochloride metil-di-(beta Aether chloratus) of amine:

White crystal powder, well water soluble and isotonic solution of sodium chloride.

Mechanism of action AA. it is connected with its alkylating properties and ability to react easily with nucleinic to-tami, proteins, enzymes.

AA. it is effective at a lymphogranulomatosis, hron. myeloleukemia, lymphoma and small-celled cancer of a lung.

The drug is administered intravenously; solution is prepared by ex tempore. Injections make or daily within 4 days on 0,1 mg/kg, or once — all course dose (0,4 mg/kg). The fractional and extended technique, on a cut E is safer. enter on 5 — 6 mg 3 times a week, from only 8 to 20 injections (totally from 40 to 120 mg) depending on portability of drug and its efficiency.

AA. is one of components of the combined chemotherapy tumors (see). So, at treatment of a lymphogranulomatosis the following scheme is most effective: Embichinum + Vincristinum (Oncovinum) + Procarbazinum (Natulanum) + Prednisolonum.

From by-effects, arising at treatment by Embichinum, it is necessary to revenge the expressed influence on a hemogenesis up to an aplasia of marrow. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting are often observed, the headache, drowsiness, the expressed weakness is more rare. Quite often there is phlebitis. In this regard treatment by Embichinum should be carried out under a close check of indicators of a hemopoiesis (2 — 3 times a week). At decrease in quantity of leukocytes to 2500 — 3000 in 1 mkl blood, and thrombocytes — to 100 000 in 1 mkl stop treatment. At development of sharp oppression of a hemopoiesis make transfusion of a fresh citrated blood, appoint stimulators of a hemopoiesis, vitamins. For the prevention and easing of vomiting appoint aminazine or etaperazin.

Contraindications for appointment E. anemia, a leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhagic diathesis, a serious illness of cardiovascular system, a liver, kidneys are. Treatment by Embichinum after the previous radiation therapy and chemotherapy is admissible not earlier than in 1 — 1,5 month after normalization of indicators of a hemopoiesis.

Form of release: the soldered sterile ampoules with a capacity of 10 ml containing 0,01 g of drug. Storage: in the dry cool place protected from light.

See also Antineoplastic means .

Bibliography: Blochin N. N. and Perevodchikova N. I. Chemotherapy of tumoral diseases, M., 1984; Gershanovich M. L. Complications at himio-hormonal therapy of malignant tumors, M., 1982; Larionov L. F. Chemotherapy of malignant tumors, M., 1962; De Vita V. T., Serick A. Carbone P. P. Comnation chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced Hodgkin's disease, Ann. intern. Med., v. 73, p. 884, 1970; Karnofsku D. A. Summary of results obtained with nitrogen mustard in the treatment of neoplastic disease, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., v. 68, p. 899, 1958; Sellei C., Eckhardt S. Nemeth L. Chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases, Budapest, 1970.

BB. H. Falcons.