From Big Medical Encyclopedia

EL SALVADOR, the Republic of El Salvador — the state in Central America. Territory of 21,4 thousand km 2 . Population of St. 4,8 million people (1980), hl. obr. metises. Capital of San Salvador (population of St. 800 thousand people). Ofits. language — Spanish. In the administrative relation El Salvador is divided into 14 departments.

El Salvador

Since 1524 El Salvador was under the power of Spaniards; since 1841 — the independent republic. At the beginning of 20 century also the American capital which reached an ascendent position in economy began to get into the country English, German, and later. In 1979 the group of army officers carried out a coup, the military and civil junta was created. Since then steadily fight of workers against antinational policy of junta expands. Since October, 1980 armed struggle against a reactionary system is conducted by the Front of national release of Farabun-do Martie. According to the constitution which became effective in 1962 legislative vlastv to the country it is carried out by unicameral Legislative assembly, executive — the president elected for a period of 5 years.

The most part of the country is occupied by volcanic uplands 600 — 700 m high. Climate of the country — tropical, passatny. Rainfall of 1500 — 1800 mm a year.

El Salvador — preferential agrarian country. The basis of the economy — production and processing of page - x. products. There are small oil refining, steel, pulp, cement works. The economy is depending on foreign, mainly American, the capital.

The main population — Salvadorans. Most of them — the metises coming from mixing of Spaniards and Indian natives, the others — white and Indians.

Main vital rates (1980): birth rate 34,7, the general mortality 7,9 for 1000 of the population, a natural increase of the population 26,8. Child mortality made 53,0 for 1000 live-born (1979).

In 1974 in El Salvador enterita and other diseases were among the main reasons for death went. - kish. a path, the factors causing perinatal mortality, bronchitis, asthma, flu, pneumonia, etc.

In 1977 among infectious and parasitic diseases 2293 cases of a typhoid and paratyphus, 2385 cases of infectious hepatitis, 4295 cases of an amebiasis, 77 976 cases of malaria, 23 146 cases of fever of a dengue, 5654 cases of a dochmiasis were registered. The complex problem for health care of the country is represented by tuberculosis: in 1979 2281 new cases of a pulmonary tuberculosis are registered. Cases of diseases of a leprosy are noted.

Among children such infections as measles, whooping cough, chicken pox, diphtheria are widespread; cases of poliomyelitis are registered.

Heads health service in the country mines - in health care. The country is divided into regions of health care, each of to-rykh the director of regional health service directs.

In 1977 in El Salvador was 56 to lay down. institutions on 7062 beds (16,6 on 10 000 population), an overwhelming part from to-rykh (55 institutions on 7049 beds) was under authority of the state. Lech. institutions would be subdivided on the general profile (13 into 3997 beds), rural, or local (15 into 282 beds), the medical centers with conditions for hospitalization (21 into 536 beds). Among specialized to lay down. institutions 2 maternity homes (325 beds), pediatric-tsa (390 beds), 2-tsy for treatment of TB patients (536 beds), 2 psychiatric-tsy functioned (996 beds).

The population receives the extra hospital help in polyclinic departments of BC, the medical centers, and also mobile crews of health care (see Lechebno - preventive institutions abroad).

In 1976 in El Salvador 1116 doctors (2,7 doctors for 10 000 population), 359 stomatologists, 386 druggists, 1023 nurses, 138 assistants to nurses, 238 technicians-laboratory assistants, etc. personnel worked.

At Un-te of San Salvador there is a medical faculty, to-ry in 1976/1977 academic year let out more than 90 doctors.

Bibliography: World health statistics annual 1980 — 1981, Infectious diseases, p. 22, Geneva, 1981; World health statistics annual 1980, Health personnel and hospital establishments, p. 49, Geneva, 1980; World health statistics annual 1980, Vital statistics and cases of death, p. 10, Geneva, 1980.

A. A. Rozov.