ELECTROVACUUM PRODUCTION, occupational health. AA. the item — process of industrial production various on complexity and a design of devices, feature to-rykh is placement of electrodes in vacuum or in the environment of dilute gases in a cover, impenetrable for air, from glass or metal. Products E. items are filament lamps, cold and gazosvetny light lamps, kinescopes and other electron beam devices, mercury rectifiers, X-ray tubes and some other devices.
The main productions in E. items are preparation of separate details of lamps, assembly, testing of lamps and devices.
At production of glass covers serve as the major adverse production factors the dust, various on physical and chemical properties, (see) which is formed at preparation of furnace charge, the heating microclimate (see) and air pollution by carbon monoxide (see), lead (see), hydrocarbons (see). Glass blowing, cutting of glass tubes and other steklozagotovitelny operations in addition to the heating microclimate and infrared radiation are followed by noise (see), in a range to-rogo averages and low frequencies prevail.
For production of anodes, grids, screens, cathodes in E. items apply chemically pure tungsten (see), molybdenum (see), tantalum, sometimes (by production of generating lamps) nickel (see), degreasing and etching to-rykh can be followed by air pollution of a working zone vapors of chlorinated hydrocarbons and to - t. At production of the cathode and insulating coatings, tsokolevochny mastics, gas absorbers and other technological materials pollution of the production atmosphere vapors of solvents — amyl acetate, acetone (see), methanol is possible (see. Methyl alcohol), and also barium (see), beryllium (see), thorium (see) and their connections.
The major adverse factors during the performance of assembly works (the heating microclimate, infrared radiation, carbon monoxide and other products of incomplete combustion of gas) are caused by continuous open burning of large amounts of gas.
The installation works which are often connected with need of distinguishing of details the sizes to 0,001 mm demand big visual tension. At vacuum processing of devices along with high temperature of air and pollution its products of incomplete combustion on - potentially dangerous pronzvodstvenny vrednost are electromagnetic fields, x-ray emission and vapors of mercury. Release of vapors of mercury (see), and sometimes and a thaw of mercury can take place at disturbance of tightness of a vacuum system at a napaivaniye of devices, on otkachny posts, at a vmontirovaniye of lamps in otkachny cars. The broken mercury devices, the wrong methods of cleaning of a vacuum system, filling of mercury in the vacuum equipment can also be the reasons of pollution of the production atmosphere mercury. During the testing and use of the devices demanding tension of St. 15 kV, X-ray (see. X-ray emission), getting through glass, dissipate in surrounding space. In the course of testing of generating superhigh-frequency devices for working electromagnetic fields microwave ovens with dominance of centimetric waves can influence (see. Electromagnetic field). Sources of radiation of this field are the cathode conclusions, opening the ends of wave guides, thinnesses in wave guides, etc.
High temperature of air and pollution by its carbon monoxide can become the reason of development in the workers occupied with assembly of electrovacuum devices or who are carrying out nek-ry procuring operations, functional frustration of a nervous system and arterial hypotonia (see Hypotension arterial).
At the assemblers who are carrying out assembly of fine details the sizes to 0,001 mm as a result of steady stress of sight by the end of change the exhaustion of the svetooshchushchayushchy and motive device of eyes can develop. At the persons which are treated to the combined action of electromagnetic fields and x-ray emission vegetative dysfunction in combination with a neurotic syndrome and disturbance of functions of cardiovascular system is sometimes observed.
Improvement of working conditions in E. the item is reached by the automation and mechanization of the main manufacturing operations facilitating work of workers; sealing it is equipped also with the device of shelters that prevents pollution of the production atmosphere dust, toxic couples and gases; the device of all-exchange and local ventilation, shielding of heated surfaces and sources of heating, the organization of air duplication in workplaces that contributes to normalization of a microclimate in workrooms. Flameless combustion of gas by means of ceramic, tunnel and other types of torches in assembly shops E. the item excludes a possibility of acute and chronic intoxications carbon monoxide. For protection of the electromagnetic fields and x-ray emission working from harmful effects use special screens. Production of mercury devices should be made in certain rooms, it is better in separate buildings with special devices. It is reasonable to place Otkachny posts for mercury devices in hoods.
Working furniture shall be convenient. It is reasonable to apply chairs with the seats and backs regulated on height to a support in lumbar area. For the purpose of increase in working capacity and decrease in fatigue enter short-term additional breaks in 1,5 hours after the beginning of work and in 1,5 hours after a lunch break. Benches shall be equipped with the lamps providing uniform and sufficient illumination on working surfaces.
At glass blowing, forging of metals it is necessary to apply individual means of protection from noise — antiphons (see Protivoshuma). Due to the pollution of skin of hands measures of personal hygiene have essential value. Among to lay down. - prof. of actions the major are preliminary and periodic medical examinations (see. Medical examination), periodic stay in a dispensary, rational use of the days off and issue.
Bibliography: Goldman E. P. Occupational health in the electrovacuum industry, L., 1964, bibliogr.; Nikonova K. V. The hygienic characteristic of working conditions during the work with high-frequency heating in the electrovacuum industry, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 1, page 9, 1960; Tarasenko N. Yu. Some questions of occupational health during the work with thorium at production of gas absorbers of electric lamps, in book: Vopr. gigabyte. and dosimetry, under the editorship of A. A. Letavet, page 27, M., 1957.
E. I. Vorontsova, E. I. Goldman.