ELECTROTECHNICAL INDUSTRY, occupational health. AA. the item — the industry of the national economy releasing the equipment for production, transfer and electricity consumption. V E. items enter the enterprises for release of light sources and the lighting equipment, the cable, electro-coal productions, the enterprises which are releasing sources of current (see. Accumulator production) and electroceramic insulators.
AA. the item has much in common in technology and working conditions with machine-building production (see. Mechanical engineering industry). By production of the power electrotechnical equipment the major harmful production factors are noise (see), dust content (see Dust) and a gas contamination of air, the heating microclimate (see), an exercise stress. Insulating obmotochnye works are performed in the conditions of the heating microclimate, workers at the same time contact to organic solvents (see), generally to toluene, a xylol, white spirit. During the testing of electrical machines there is a broadband noise. During high-voltage tests of transformers the air environment is polluted by ozone, nitric oxides, there is a considerable ionization of air. For a covering of a cable and veins enamels varnishes, rubber, fiber glass, plastic, lead, aluminum, a wire, steel tapes, etc. are used. At the same time air can become soiled aerosols of lead, aluminum, vapors of solvents (benzene chloride, Tricresolum, solvent, ethylcellosolve), carbon monoxide, acrolein, formaldehyde, phenol, acetic aldehyde, dibutyl phthalate, talc dust. Impurity of air can be combined with the heating microclimate; a part of operations is carried out manually, monotony of work is noted. At a factory of sources of current working contact to compounds of mercury (see), lead (see), acids and alkalis (see Acids and the bases), solvents (see), polymeric materials (see), powdery products (soot, graphite, etc.). In production of electroceramic insulators the major harmful factors are dust, the noise, vibration (see) heating a microclimate, a gas contamination of air. Features tekhnol. process and a working condition on production of electroceramic insulators in many respects same, as on farforo-faience (see Farforo-fayansovoye production) and ceramic (see. Brick and ceramic production) productions. Working conditions in electrocoal production are characterized by contact working with dust of graphite, soot, coke and a coal century, heavy metals, and also influence of the heating microclimate, noise and vibration.
Frequency of occupational diseases is E. the item low, however emergence of a dermatosis (see), intoxications (see Poisonings), cochlear neuritis (see), a pneumoconiosis is possible (see).
The preventive actions which are carried out at the plants E. items, provide further mechanization and automation tekhnol. processes (first of all elimination of manual operations), exception of production of highly toxic products (e.g., benzene chloride, toluene, xylol, perchloromethane) and replacement with their less toxic (ethylcellosolve, water); sealing and isolation of the equipment (transport communications, electrical machines at their testing, bathtubs with the melted lead, etc.); observance of measures of individual protection and personal hygiene. The rational ventilation allowing to purify air of chemical connections is of great importance and ached, to eliminate excess of heat. The close check behind timely delivery to workers of individual protection equipment according to the operating «Standard industry norms of delivery of special clothes, special footwear and other individual protection equipment to workers and the employee of electrotechnical production» is necessary. Part of workers E. the item, for example in production of sources of current, lead accumulators, electrocoal production, has the right on free to lay down. - the prof. food. All persons having contact with harmful production factors are obliged to have, according to the order M3 USSR, preliminary and periodic medical examinations (see. Medical examination).
Bibliography: Shilova N. A. and Mezentseva N. V. Occupational health in production of cables and wires, the Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 4, page 81, 1981; Filippov O. V., Adamovich G. G. and Lachagin V. V. To fiziologo-hygienic assessment of tension of work of workers of thin drawing at the plants of the cable industry, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 11, page 48, 1975; Shterengarts R. Ya. Questions of occupational health and professional pathology at high-voltage tests of the electrotechnical equipment, in the same place, No. 1, page 7, 1965; Encyclopaedia of occupational health and safety, v. 1, Geneva, 1983.
V. M. Retnev, A. Ya. Dudarev.