ELECTROANESTHESIA [electro-(from «electricity» + Greek anaisthesia lack of sensitivity) — one of methods of modern general anesthesia, at Krom anesthesia is reached by impact on a brain electric current of certain parameters, safe for the patient.
For the first time the analgesic effect of electric current was shown by the fr. physiologist Ledyuk (S. And. N. Leduc) in the beginning on animals (1902), and then in an experiment on (1903). It showed that the greatest analgesic effect squared electric impulses with a frequency of 100 — 200 Hz (have see. Impulse currents). Tyuffye and Gardi (M. Th. Tuffier, Hardy) in 1907 for the first time made operation at the person in the conditions of the general electroanesthesia (electroanaesthesia) by a method Ledyuk.
The mechanism of the anesthetizing action of electric current is found insufficiently out. N. E. Vvedensky's doctrine about a parabiosis became the first theoretical basis of an electroanesthesia. Neyrofiziol. researches of the last decades allowed to put forward the concept of an electroanesthesia based on the fact of formation of the hypersynchronous (epileptiform) activity in limbic structures of a brain (a hippocampus, an amygdaloid nucleus) arising in response to action of weak (subnarcotic) impulses of electric current on a brain (see. Limbic system). With increase in current epileptiform activity, gaining generalized character, causes the analgesia which is expressed in increase in a threshold of pain reaction and reduction of the ascending nociceptive activating influence on a cerebral cortex. There is also a hypothesis, according to a cut at the heart of E. activation of endogenous opioid system of c lies. N of page (see. Opiates endogenous ) under the influence of the electric incentive mobilizing endogenous neuropeptids — endorphines and enkephalins.
Long time method E. did not find application in clinic of hl. obr. because researchers, aiming to cause the general anesthesia only electric current, without simultaneous use of pharmaceuticals, could not provide sufficient anesthesia. The applied parameters of electric current often led to pains and burns under electrodes, to a muscular spasm, spasms. In 1952 the method of electromedicamentous anesthesia consisting in influence by electric current in combination with analgetics was offered. From this point E. drew attention of clinical physicians. In process of the development of new methods combined E. its positions in a wedge. to practice are fixed. The domestic industry releases the device for an electroanesthesia Lenar. There is a wedge. experience of use of this device in obstetric practice.
In a crust. time of a research E. in an experiment and in clinic are directed to development of new forms and parameters of electric current, rational arrangement of electrodes, the choice of medicines for the combined electroanesthesia.
In the last decade the analgesic effect of electric current with certain success is used in clinic for stopping of postoperative pains, be ill incurable oncological patients, and also patients with hron. pain syndrome. Improvement of methods of a countershock of pain goes way of transdermal electroneurostimulation in the direction of designing of devices, creation of the combined techniques based on simultaneous use of medicines, methods of acupuncture (see Acupuncture). Transdermal electroneurostimulation unlike the general electroanesthesia does not oppress consciousnesses of the patient; it is applied to treatment of local pains.
Further development of an electroanesthesia and transdermal electroneurostimulation as methods of elimination of a pain syndrome is very perspective direction.
Bibliogr.: M. I. cousins, etc. Theory and practice of an electroanesthesia, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 11, page 12, 1976; Leduc S. L’inhibition cerebrale electrique chez l’homme, Arch. Elect. med., t. 10, p. 769, 1902; Limoge A. An introduction to electroanesthesia, Baltimore, 1975.