From Big Medical Encyclopedia

EKTOGENEZ (Greek ektos out of, outside + genesis origin, an origin) — the general name of theories of evolution, according to the Crimea organic evolution happens only under the influence of changes of the environment, edges is considered as the decisive formoobrazovatelny factor causing the directed adaptive changes of an organism. descended. AA. the autogenesis — a complex of doctrines resists, according to the Crimea evolution happens only thanks to action of internal factors and does not depend on conditions of the environment.

The main ideas of an ektogenez and autogenesis were formulated by Ge. Lamarck (see the Lamarckism). The explanation of evolution which is put forward by it as manifestations of a tendency, independent of external conditions, to uniform rectilinear change of the organization or towards complication (gradation), or towards simplification (degradation) was developed by supporters of autogenesis. At the same time, explaining evolution either the direct, or mediated influence of the environment (change of requirements, new actions for their satisfaction, new habits and finally exercise or not exercise of bodies), Ge. Lamarck laid the foundation E. (see the Lamarckism). Positions E. adhered Ge. Lamarck's contemporary Geoffroi St Hilaire (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire), representatives of a mechanolamarckism — Spencer (N. Spencer), etc., positions of autogenesis — representatives of a psycholamarkizm — the Cop (B. Soar) and close views to it — R. Kelliker, Neghelli (To. Nageli), Aymer (Th. G. Eimer), etc., and also the founder of a mutatsionizm — X. de Fris.

Ideas E. made the known impact on Ch. Darvin. The hypothesis of a pangenesis offered them proceeds from the principle of inheritance of the acquired properties. At the same time Ch. Darwin noted that environmental conditions influence an organism either directly, or indirectly, through reproductive system. He took unity of an organism and the environment into account, and also differentially approached variability of organisms, allocating two sorts of changes — defined (i.e. equally shown at all descendants of the individuals who underwent any external influence) and uncertain (the individual changes going diversely defining distinction of individuals of the same look). The last type of variability was not taken into account Ch. Darvin's predecessors at all. At last, explaining a variety of organic forms, Ch. Darwin among others noted action of a brand new factor — selection, to-ry allows to accumulate changes in this or that direction.

Much bigger influence theory E. rendered on Gekkel (B. of Haeckel) explaining progressive evolution not only with action of selection, but also direct influence of the environment — influence of exercise and not exercise of bodies and inheritance of the acquired properties.

Influence of the theory E. 19 century thanks to works of A. Veysman who showed weakness of empirical proofs of one of philosophy E were seriously undermined in the 80th. — inheritance of the acquired signs and exaggeration of its role as the necessary assumption designed to explain changes of the organic world. And. Veysman put forward also serious arguments against lamarkistsky versions of the theory of autogenesis. He emphasized that the internal factor of development postulated by representatives of autogenesis differs in nothing from the vital force of vitalists (see Vitalism). According to A. Veysman, there is no need to postulate this principle if factors known to science well explain process of evolution. However A. Veysman did not manage to go beyond an antithesis ektogenez yet — autogenesis.

From positions of materialistic dialectics ektogenez and autogenesis represent unilateral metaphysical concepts of organic evolution: the first of them absolutizes value external, and the second — internal factors of individual and historical development. In the world outlook plan fight of an ektogenez and autogenesis was inseparably linked with fight of a mekhanitsizm and vitalism. AA., as a rule, acted as natural-science fundamentals of mechanistic materialism and a determinism (see) whereas the autogenesis served one of manifestations of the idealistic concept of life and development.

As various industries of biology (genetics, ecology, developmental biology, physiology, molecular biology, etc.) opened objective dialectics external and intercommunications in wildlife, ektogenez and autogenesis became obsolete as the independent directions of a scientific thought. A crucial role in scientific criticism of autogenesis and AA. played knowledge of patterns of storage, transfer, reproduction and transformation of genetic information, specifics of the organization of living beings as open circuits (see System), homeostatic mechanisms of regulation and self-control. In medicine studying of dialectic bonds of an organism and Wednesday is the cornerstone of ideas of norm (see). AA. the autogenesis — physiophilosophical concepts of evolution remained as a component of behaviouristic concepts (see the Behaviourism) (see Theory of evolution).

A number of researchers use the terms «ektogenez» and «avtogenez» in wider value not only for the characteristic of theories of evolution, but also other concepts, in particular theories of ethnology and a pathogeny in medicine. So, e.g., the monokauzalizm (see) belongs to an ektogenez, and constitutionalism (see the Constitution) — to autogenesis. The similar treatment in medical methodological literature meets seldom. Problems of a pathogeny (see) and etiologies (see) are usually discussed with attraction of the concepts «external» and «internal».

Bibliography: Lenin V. I. Complete works, 5th prod., t. 29, page 316; Zavadsky K. M. Development of theory of evolution after Darwin, L., 1973; Naira E. Zoological view and evolution, lane from English. M, 1968; it, Population, types and evolution, the lane with English, M., 1974; Metlov V. I. The critical analysis of evolutionary approach in the theory of knowledge K. Poppera, Vopr. philosophies, No. 2, page 75, 1979; Timofeev-Resovsky N. V., Baneberries N. N. and Yablokov A. V. Short sketch of the theory of evolution, M., 1977; Filipchenko Yu. A. The evolutionary idea in biology, M., 1977; Philosophical problems of modern biology, under the editorship of A.S. Mamzin, page 63, M. — L., 1966; Shmalgauayen I. I. Cybernetic questions of biology, Novosibirsk, 1968; it, Factors of evolution, M., 1968; Popper K. R. Objective Erkenntnis: ein evolutionarer Entwurf, Hamburg, 1974.

3. V. Kaganova.