EKKA FYSTULA (N. V. Ekk, domestic surgeon and physiologist, 1849 — 1908; lat. fistula a tube) — a method of switching off of functions of a liver in an experiment on animals; the physiology consists in imposing of an anastomosis between the lower hollow and portal vein with simultaneous bandaging of a portal vein above an anastomosis therefore blood, passing a liver, comes to the lower vena cava — see the Liver.
EKKLS John (Eccles John Carew, sort. in 1903) — the Australian neurophysiologist, the member and the president (1957 — 1961) Australian academies of Sciences, the member London royal about-va (1941), the honorary member of the American academy of Sciences and arts (1959), the Nobel Prize laureate (1963).
Got an education in Melbourn (1925), and then in Oxford where in 1929 to it degree of the doctor of philosophy was awarded. In 1928 — 1937 worked in Oxford un-those under the leadership of Ch. Cher ringtone. From 1937 to 1944 Ying volume of pathology in Sydney directed. In 1944 — 1951 managed department of physiology medical f-that Otagsky un-that (Dunedin, New Zealand). From 1951 to 1966 directed department of physiology Australian national un-that in Canberra. In 1966 — 1968 professor Ying-that biomedical researches in Chicago, in 1968 — 1975 the director of institute of a neurobiology and at the same time the dean f-that New York un-that in Buffalo.
The main works of J. Ekkls are devoted elektrofizio to logical studying of mechanisms of reflex activity of c. N of page and the nature of its basic processes — excitement and braking (see Braking). It for the first time in the world carried out registration of bioelectric potential of single neurons. Based on the numerous experimental facts, J. Ekkls gave quantitative descriptions of brake and exciting processes and dynamics of their interaction at the level of synapses, nervous cells, population of nervous elements and various formations of c. N of page. It studied origins and functional value of presynaptic braking (see the Brain, the Nervous cell, the Reflex theory). J. Ekkls's works are devoted of the last years to philosophical aspects of the doctrine about a brain.
The Nobel Prize is conferred together with E. Huxley and And. Hodzhkinom for opening of ionic mechanisms of excitement and braking in nervous cells.
J. Ekkls — the honorary member of a number of the Australian and foreign academies and scientific about - century
of Works: The neurophysiological basis of mind, The principles of neurophysiology, Oxford, 1953; The physiology of nerve cells, 1st prod., Baltimore, 1957, 5 prod., 1968 (Russian lane, M., 1959); The physiology of synapse, B., 1964 (Russian lane, M., 1966); The cerebellum as a neuronal machine, B., 1967 (sovm. with other); The inhibitory pathways of the central nervous system, Springfield, 1969 (Russian lane, M., 1971); The understanding of the brain, N. Y. a. o., 1973, 1977; The self and its brain, B., 1977 (sovm. with Popper K. R.); Molecular neurobiology of the mammalian brain, N. Y. — L., 1978 (sovm. with other); The human mystery, B., 1979.
Bibliography: Sir John Eccles and the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, Med. J. Aust., v. 2, p. 789, 1963; Who’s who 1981, p. 772, L., 1981. JI. M. Chuppina.