EHINOSTOMOZY (echinostomo-ses) — helminthoses from group of tre-matodoz wild and poultry, rodents (is more rare than other mammals), and also the person, caused by the trematodes of the sort Echinostoma parasitizing in a small bowel and shown enteritis.
It is described by only several hundred cases of the person ekhi-nostomozy. Invasions of Echinostoma lindoense (Philippines, Malaysia), E. ilocanum (Indonesia, Philippines, etc. islands of the Pacific Ocean), E. hortense (Japan) meet more often. Also isolated cases of parasitizing at the person of E. paraulum (Western Europe, the USSR), E. macrorchis (Japan), E are registered. cinetorchis (Japan, South Korea), E. revolutum (island of Taiwan).
The body puberal ekhinosty flat, is extended - an oval form. Its length different types of 3,4 — 22 mm, width have 0,7 — 3,7 mm. Around an actinostome there is an additional body of fixing — kutikulyar-ny «collar» (an adoral disk) with a double number of thorns. Eggs large, oval, slightly yellowish or straw-colored color with a lid on one end and a slabozametny hillock — on another. The sizes of eggs at different types: 0,081 — 0,132 X 0,044 — 0,074 mm.
Development of a puberal stage ekhinosty happens in an organism of birds, mammals, the person (final owners). Larval stages develop in the intermediate owner — mollusks of the sorts Lim-naea, Helisoma, Planorbis, Asinus, Hipperitus, and then — in the additional owner, the Crimea there can be mollusks of the sorts Pila, Viviparus, Gyraulus, Corbicula, and also frogs and other amphibians or fishes (a loach, the Japanese bitterling, etc.).
The eggs allocated with excrements of final owners develop in fresh-water reservoirs where they ripen within 6 — 15 days. Leaves mature egg miratsidiya, to-ry is implemented in a mollusk and develops in a sporocyst. Of everyone sporocysts it is formed several re-diya forming then in a cercaria. Development in the intermediate owner continues apprx. 1 g12 — 2 months. The created cercariae leave mollusks and get into additional owners where intsi-stirutsya and approximately in 15 days turn in metatserkariyev. Infection of final owners, including the person, occurs at consumption of crude fish, crude meat of frogs, mollusks (additional owners) infested by mature metacercarias. In a human body the period of maturing of helminths to a puberal stage averages 2 weeks. The scheme of a life cycle of activators of trematodoz see fig. to the Art. of Tremapgodoza, t. 25, p. 244.
At the heart of a pathogeny E. current-siko-allergic reactions to waste products of helminths and mechanical impact of parasites on a wall of a small bowel lie. In places of parasitizing of helminths the plethora and hypostasis of a mucous membrane of a gut, its lymphocytic plazmokletochnaya and eosinophilic infiltration, in a gleam of a small bowel — dense slime are observed.
At diseases the pristupoobrazny abdominal pains lasting sometimes till some days, a diarrhea are noted. Early there are a monocytosis and an eosinophilia in blood, to-rye reach a maximum approximately on the 6th week after infection and decrease to normal amounts, as a rule, by 10th week.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of data by a wedge, pictures, epidemiol. the anamnesis (consumption of crude fish, crude meat of frogs or fresh-water mollusks) and detection in excrements of eggs of helminths.
For treatment appoint a prazik-vantel, radio extract of a men's fern, bitionol.
Basis of prevention is the dignity. - a gleam, the work consisting in an explanation to the population of districts of need of failure, endemic on an ekhinostomoza, from national customs to eat crude fish, crude meat of frogs or fresh-water mollusks.
See also Trematpodoza.
Bibliography: The multivolume guide to
microbiology, clinic and epidemiology of infectious diseases, under the editorship of
H. I. Shukova-Verezhnikova, t. 9, page 452,
M., 1968; Scriabin K. I. Trematodes of animals and person, page 87, M., 1956;
And of i z about n about N. and. lake of Studies on Echi-nostoma hortense Asada, 1926 with special reference to its human infection, Jap. J. Parasit., v. 25, p. 36, 1976; R a-domyos P., In unnag D. Ha-rinasuta T. Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911, infection in man in Thailand, S. Asian J. trop. Med., v. 13, p. 265, 1982; T a n i S. Studies on Echinostoma hortense (Asada, 1926).
I. Species identification of human echino-stomiasis and its infection source, Jap. J * Parasit., v. 25, p. 262, 1976.
B. A. Astafyev.