EIKMAN Christiaan (Eijkman Christiaan, 1858 — 1930) is the Dutch hygienist and the microbiologist, the Nobel Prize laureate (1929).
In 1883 ended medical f-t Amsterdam un-that, then trained at R. Koch.
Since 1886 the medical officer and the assistant to the government commission on studying of beriberi (see) in Indonesia.
In 1888 — 1898 the director of laboratory of pathology in Batavia (nowadays Jakarta). From 1898 to 1928 professor of hygiene Utrecht un-that.
X. Eykman is known for the researches of avitaminosis, hl. obr. beriberi (avitaminosis of Bx). In operating time on the lake of Java he found out that hens, to-rykh fed with the polished rice, got sick with the paralysis reminding beriberi. When they began to be fed with unpolished rice, they quickly recovered. At sick hens observed the degenerative changes in peripheral nerves and in cells of front horns of a spinal cord called X. Eykman Polyneuritis gallinarum. Mass diseases of beriberi were noted on the lake of Java among people, especially among prisoners at this time, in a diet to-rykh there was a hl. obr. the polished rice. In 1906 X. Eykman reported that rice bran and other products contains low-molecular substance, water soluble and water solution of alcohol, the beriberi protecting the person from a disease. Is later than observation of X. Eykmana were confirmed by Fletcher (W. M of Fletcher) and F. Gop-kins. Are known also offered X. Eykman mediums for cultivation of microorganisms (see Eykman of the environment).
Nobel Prize of X. Eykman is awarded together with F. Gopkins for opening of «accessory factors of food», to the Crimea was carried as well the substance protecting from beriberi, called afterwards thiamin (vitamin of Vkh). Works: Eine Beri Beri-ahnliche Krankheit der Hiihner, Arch. path. Anat., Bd 148, S. 523, 1897; Ein Versuch zur Bekampfung der Beri-Beri, ibid., Bd 149, S. 187, 1897; Die Garungsprobe bei 46 ° als Hilfsmittel bei der Trinkwasseruntersuchung, Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Orig., Bd 37, S. 742, 1904.
Bibliography: Bukin H. V. Vitami
ny, page 3, M. — L., 1940; E f p e m about in V. V. The most important avitaminosis of the person, page 3, 32, M. — L., 1939; Kudryashov B. A. Biological bases of the doctrine about vitamins, page 26, M., 1948.
V. V. Efremov.