EHRLICH Paul (Ehrlich Paul, 1854 — 1915) is the German doctor, the bacteriologist, the chemist and the biochemist, one of founders of chemotherapy, the Nobel Prize laureate (1908).
Medical .obrazovaniye received in Breslavl's high fur boots (nowadays Wroclaw), Strasbourg and Leipzig. In 1878 protected dokt. the thesis on the subject «Contribution to the Theory and Practice of Histologic Colouring». Still being a student P. Ehrlich studied the factors influencing distribution and fixing of chemical substances in an organism, considering what and from specific affinity of each medicinal substance to cells and fabrics depends on them them pharmakol. action. Following this principle he tried to find out ratios between chemical structure and pharmakol. effect of active agents. From 1878 to 1887 P. Ehrlich worked as the doctor in clinic Rummage in Berlin. Since 1887 the privatdozent, and since 1890 extraordinary professor Berlin un-that. At the same time worked in Ying-those infectious diseases of R. Koch. In 1896 he headed Ying t based by it of control and studying of serums, and in 1899 — Ying t of experimental therapy in Frankfurt am Main (nowadays Ying t of Paul Ehrlich).
P. Ehrlich worked in various fields of medical biology, chemistry, experimental pathology and therapy. He established existence of various forms of leukocytes, value of marrow for formation of granulocytes, differentiated certain forms of leukoses and created the dualistic theory of a hemopoiesis (1880 — 1898). During the same period it opened so-called mast cells in connecting fabric; for the first time found existence of a blood-brain barrier; offered a specific method of coloring of mycobacteria of tuberculosis, a way of multi-color coloring of blood smears and gistol. drugs (see Ehrlich — Biondi coloring). P. Ehrlich created the first syvorotochno-control station, developed a method of definition of activity of anti-toxic serums and a way of studying of reaction antigen — an antibody of in vitro. P. Ehrlich stated the idea that the cells responsible for immune responses have on a surface antigen the distinguishing structures — receptors. This idea which played a huge role in development of immunology found full confirmation since existence on immunocompetent cells of specific receptors was proved further. P. Ehrlich and Yu. Morgenrot (1899) determined the fact, extremely important for immunology — ability of antigens (antigenic determinants) to selectively fix the corresponding antibodies in immune serum. The principle of preferential adsorption formed the basis of the analysis of antigenic structure of bacteria (see Castellani a method), viruses, cells and fabrics, and also a method of receiving monospe-tsifichesky antibodies to separate antigenic determinants. It entered concepts hetero - from - and autohemolysins.
EHRLICH - BIONDI COLOURING 341
Since 1891 P. Ehrlich began to develop methods of treatment inf. diseases by means of the chemical substances capable to be fixed on contagiums and to suppress their life activity. In the beginning it implemented in practice treatment of a quartan malaria methylene blue, then it is offered to use tripanrot and other dyes of various groups for treatment of a trypanosomiasis. He determined the fact of acquisition by microorganisms of resistance to chemotherapeutic preperata and defined value of immune responses for process of recovery. However world fame to P. Ehrlich works on treatment brought to a sperilla call and syphilis of the person as organic compounds of arsenic. In 1907 he managed to create drug 606 (salvarsan), to-ry it was highly effective at treatment of syphilis.
In 1901 P. Ehrlich began to work on a problem of malignant tumors. It created a number of methods of experimental receiving the intertwined tumors at animals and the possibility of induction by derivatives of styryl-quinoline of sarcoma at mice is for the first time proved.
P. Ehrlich offered a lot of important for a wedge, practice of laboratory reactions, including a diazo test in urine, reaction with sulphanilic to - that and dimethylaminobenzaldehyde for definition of bilirubin, reaction for definition of an indole and its derivatives (see Ehrlich reaction), an azoniya, naphthoquinones for what he was awarded medals Yu. Libikh and a rank of the honorary member of German chemical about-va. The Nobel Prize is awarded to it (together with I. I. Mechnikov) for works in the field of immunology.
Works: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Anilinfar-bungen und ihrer Verwendung in der mikro-skopischen Technik, Arch. mikr. Anat., Bd 13, S. 263, 1877; Das Sauerstoff-Bedur-fnis des Organismus, B., 1885; Farbenana-lytische Untersuchungen zur Histologie und Klinik des Blutes, B., 1891; Gesammelte Arbeiten zur Immunitatsforschung, B., 1904; Die experimen telle Chemotherapie der Spirillosen (Syphilis, Ruckfallfieber, Huhnerspirillose, Frambosie), B., 1910
(sovm. with Hata S.); Grundlagen und Erfolge der Chemotherapie, Lpz., 1911.
Bibliography: Apolant H. u. a,
Paul Ehrlich, eine Darstellung seines wis-senschaftlichen Wirkens, Festschrift zum 60 * Geburtstage des Forschers, Jena, 1914; Beyer A. Paul Ehrlich und Emil v. Behring, B., 1954; Marquardt M * Paul Ehrlich als Mensch und Arbeiter, Stuttgart, 1924. X. X. Planelyes.