EGYPT, Arab Republic of Egypt, APE — the state in the northeast of Africa and in the southwest of Asia (The Sinai peninsula). The area is 1001,4 thousand sq.km. Population of 38 million people (1976). Average population density apprx. 29 people on 1 km 2 , in the delta of Nile to 950 people on 1 km 2 . The capital — Cairo (with suburbs of 8700 thousand inhabitants, 1976). Ofits. language — Arab. Administrative division — 25 governorships which are divided into districts, and districts on districts.
On 3. the countries there is the Libyan Desert, on V. — the Arabian and Nubian deserts, on S.-V. — granite mountains, the plateau and sands of the Sinai peninsula. Climate E. tropical, desert with sharp daily temperature variations and scanty rainfall. The main economic life is concentrated in the valley and the delta of Nile, in separate oases and seaside districts.
E. — republic. The head of state — the president, belongs to it executive power. The supreme legislative body — People's assembly.
E. — developing country which took industrialization a way. A considerable part of industrial production is made by the state enterprises. In the country the textile industry and the industry on roughing-out of products of agriculture prevails. The enterprises mining (including oil-extracting), mechanical and metallurgical industry are under construction and extend. Active help E. rendered the Soviet Union and other socialist countries: by means of the USSR in E. it is constructed apprx. 150 industrial enterprises and other objects, the construction of the Aswan industrial complex, largest in Africa, is complete, at the end of 1963 apprx. Cairo the plant on production of medicines is constructed. In agriculture of the country the culture of cotton prevails, a considerable part to-rogo is exported. Rice, wheat, corn, barley and other cultures are cultivated. The livestock production is developed poorly.
As a result of the policy of «liberalization of economy» announced in 1973 and «open doors» in E. the state control and regulation in economy was weakened, the private capital became stronger, position of workers worsened.
The national structure is homogeneous: 98% — Arabs (Egyptians), 2% — hl. obr. Nubians, berbers, Armenians, Greeks, etc. The natural movement of the population is characterized by a high natural increase at rather high mortality, including children's (tab. 1).
In 1971 the most frequent infectious diseases were tuberculosis, measles, epidemic hepatitis, a typhoid, meningococcal infections, diphtheria. In 1971 cases of poliomyelitis, rage, leprosy, and also a schistosomatosis, a dochmiasis, malaria, various diseases caused by causative agents of intestinal infections and parasites, trachoma and acute conjunctivitis, dermatovenereal diseases are registered.
The efforts directed to improvement of health care and health of the population allowed to liquidate smallpox, to considerably reduce incidence of malaria and trachoma: in 1960 127 444 cases of malaria, in 1970 — 23 097 were registered. However malaria still remains near the delta of Nile and in the central regions; endemicity of a schistosomatosis is rather high in the Central district and delta of Nile.
In structure of the reasons of death in 1971 were: hron, rheumatic damages of heart, hypertension, coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases; various diseases of the perinatal period; emphysema and asthma, pneumonia, accidents and others. Figure prominently it is inexact the designated diagnoses (1971 — 20%).
Organization of health care
Min-in of health care E. will organize work of bodies of health care in governorships (governorates), districts (markaz) and areas (nakhiya). As a part of mines-va there are departments a wedge, and preventive medicine, rural health care, epid, diseases, pharmacy, school hygiene and others, and also the research sector and the sector of planning and training.
For health care E. irregularity of development and significant differences in rendering medical aid in the city and the village, and also between old and new city and rural medical institutions are characteristic.
V E. there are 5 levels of medical aid: the first includes rural and regional (in towns) out-patient clinics; the second is presented by the rural centers of health care and a polywedge, departments of city BCs; the third — district-tsami with power from 60 to 120 beds in which render the therapeutic, surgical, gynecologic, ophthalmologic and dental help; the fourth —-tsami on 200 — 300 beds in the capitals of governorships. In these, besides, there would be an otorhinolaryngological, orthopedic, pediatric, dermatological help, and also the help at cardiovascular and other diseases. The most qualified medical aid (the fifth level) would appear in large Cairo and Alexandria, and also in profile in-ta (poliomyelitis, oncology, cardiology, burns, traumatology, ophthalmology) and in university-tsakh.
Hospital help to the population is given in the general and specialized-tsakh (tubercular, infectious, psychiatric, eye, tropical diseases, leper colonies, etc.). In 1974 in E. there were 1418 BCs and other stationary institutions on 76 254 beds (1,8 beds on 1000 people), from them 72% of beds in state-tsakh. 16% of beds belonged to bodies of insurance due to illness, 12% to the private sector (1971 — 4,9%).
V E. 3 large rehabilitation centers and 21 rehabilitation departments at-tsakh (1972).
Extra hospital help to the population is given by 356 polyclinic departments, 22 city policlinics, 589 rural centers of health care, 1385 rural out-patient clinics, 483 clinics, 171 points of acute management and 3006 mobile medical crews (1972).
Rural out-patient clinics are counted on service 5000 zhit., each of which has a dignity in staff of the doctor, the assistant to the nurse, the assistant to the midwife, the laboratory assistant and the assistant. inspectors; the rural centers of health care service from 10 to 15 thousand inhabitants and have two doctors, the midwife, four assistants to the midwife, two assistants to the nurse, a dignity. inspector and laboratory assistant. Apprx. 1/3 rural medical institutions are not fully completed by medical personnel (1972).
Stomatol, the help is carried out in 765 special facilities (1972).
Psychiatric consultations would be held in 30. The specialized ambulatory care is given in 116 institutions by pulmonary diseases and tuberculosis, in 20 leper colonies, in 69 departments of infectious diseases, in 35 departments of eye diseases, in 27 departments of local diseases and in 50 departments of veins. diseases. 153 laboratories of public health care function (1972).
Out-patient treatment in state to lay down. institutions free for all patients; in hospitals — to 20% of beds paid. The system of insurance due to illness provides rendering free medical aid by all insured worker and the employee at the enterprise, in policlinic and in hospital (1972).
Assistance to women and children is carried out by the centers of health care in rural areas and the centers of protection of motherhood and the childhood in the cities where each center services the district to 50 thousand inhabitants. The doctor, 8 assistants to the midwife, the druggist and the social problems specialist enter into staff of the center. In 1972 in E. there were 2189 women's and 2187 children's consultations; 69,2% of childbirth took place under observation of the doctor or the qualified midwife in-tse or at home. The program of school hygiene is carried out in 2178 centers that gives the chance to conduct overseeing of 88,5% of pupils of schools. Stomatol, help to school students is given in 184 special facilities.
Since 1966 in E. the Executive committee of the organization for planning of a family is created and functions under the leadership of the Minister of Health, a task to-rogo is planning and performance of the actions directed to restriction of birth rate. By the beginning of 1972 in E. there were 3078 centers of planning of a family located in Cairo (200), Alexandria (99) and other cities and also in rural areas where they accommodate in the territory of the centers of health care and work under the leadership of doctors of these centers.
Health care workforce. Growth of number of doctors and support medical staff for 1969 — 1973 is presented in tab. 2: in 1969 1 doctor was on 1961 inhabitants, in 1971 — on 1810 inhabitants, in 1973 — 1 doctor on 1516 inhabitants.
Medical education. Training of doctors is made on 7 medical f-takh high fur boots [in Cairo (2), Alexandria (2), El Mansura, Tanta and Assiut]. In the Highest in-those public health care (Alexandria) post-degree training of doctors is carried out, scientific research on many aspects of health care is conducted. On all medical f-takh and in research in-ta specialization in various medical disciplines is carried out.
V E. the annual release of doctors makes apprx. 3000 people, on dental surgery f-takh more than 400 people finish training. Dignity. engineers were trained on 5 f-takh: in Cairo (2), Alexandria (2) and Assiut. In the country there are 26 three-year schools on training of nurses, 54 one-and-a-half-year schools on training of assistants to nurses and midwifes, 16 schools for training of laboratory assistants, a dignity. workers, X-ray technicians and dental technicians, 12 short-term (14 — 18 weeks) courses of training of assistants dignity. workers and laboratory assistants.
The main work on a dignity. - epid, to service the hl is carried out. obr. by carrying out preventive inoculations.
In 1972 are carried out a smallpox, cholera, typhoid inoculation and a paratyphoid, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, measles — apprx. only 39 million inoculations. Vaccination of BTsZh is carried out regularly in all centers of protection of motherhood and the childhood in the cities and in the rural centers of health care.
In 1971 2485 communities from 4193 had water systems, and 115 communities — the sewerage.
In the country the known resorts function Heluan (see), Aswan, Luxor, etc.
Table 1. VITAL RATES IN EGYPT in 1966 — 1974 (on 1000 people)
Table 2. The NUMBER of DOCTORS AND AUXILIARY MEDICAL STAFF IN EGYPT in 1969, 1971 and 1973.
- There are no data.
Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 308, Geneva, WHO, 1977; The Fourth review of a condition of health care in the world (1965 — 1968), page 456, Geneva, WHO, 1973; World health statistics report, v. 28, JSfc 3, 11, 1975, v. 29, No. 4, p. 216, 1976.
V. V. Preobrazhensky.