EGGS of BIRDS as pishchev oh product. In food of the person quail eggs are generally used chicken and in insignificant quantities. The food industry of the USSR produces egg melange (the frozen mix of egg yolks and whites), egg powder, dry egg yolk and dry ovalbumin.
High nutrition value I. the item it is caused by considerable contents in them digestible protein, various lipids (see) and fat-soluble vitamins (see). Energy value of eggs makes 157 kcal / 100, quail — 168 kcal / 100 of an edible part of a product. Energy value of yaytseprodukt is much higher — egg powder — 544 kcal / 100, dry protein — 337 kcal / 100, than a dry yolk — 624 kcal / 100.
Eggs subdivide on dietetic and dining halls. Eggs during 7 days after wrecking (apart from day of wrecking) and weighing not less than 44 g are considered dietary. Eggs weighing not less than 43 g irrespective of a shelf-life belong to dining rooms. Eggs weighing less than 43 g are not subject to sale to the population, use them in the food industry or in culinary production.
Dietary eggs depending on weight divide into two categories: I \weighing not less than 54 g and II — weighing 44 — 53 g. Table eggs on weight also divide into two categories: I \weighing not less than 48 g
and II — weighing 43 — 47 g. Depending on a shelf-life each category of table eggs is divided on fresh (a shelf-life no more than 30 days at f — 1 — 2 °), holodil-
nikovy (are stored at f — 1 — 2 ° more than 30 days) and limy (are stored in limy solution).
The proteins which are a part of eggs are full: contain all irreplaceable amino acids (see) and a number of replaceable. Content of irreplaceable amino acids in protein of eggs in comparison with other foodstuff is optimum balanced (tab.).
Contains in protein of eggs: ovoal-bumin (69,7%), konalbumin (9,5%), ovomucoid (12,7%), a lysozyme (see) — 3%, possessing antimicrobic action, and also ovoglobulin, ovomucin, avidin (see); in a yolk — phosphoproteins: vitellin (to 80%), livitin, etc. Lipids of eggs are in the basic in a yolk (97%). Their ratio with proteins is near optimal (1:1). Especially much eggs contain phospholipids (see Phosphatides), hl. obr. lecithin, and also cholesterol (see). Lipids of eggs contain polinenasy-shchenny fat to - you — linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic (see. Fatty acids).
I. items are rich with fat-soluble vitamins (And, E and D), biotin, pantothenic to - by that and sincaline, to-rye are concentrated preferential in a yolk. In 100 g of a yolk of egg contains: vitamin A —
1,26 mg, vitamin D — 7,7 mkg, vitamin E — 2,0 mg, biotin — 56 mkg, pantothenic to - you are 3,8 mg, sincaline — 800 mg.
Besides, eggs and yaytseprodukta are rich with phosphorus, iron and zinc, napr, egg on 100 g of an edible part of a product contains 215 mg of phosphorus, 2,5 mg of iron and 996 mkg of zinc.
I. items widely use as foodstuff; all components of eggs are well acquired by an organism. Protein of crude eggs is acquired slightly worse, than boiled since crude eggs contain ovomucoid — inhibitor of trypsin. Negative property of crude eggs is also that avidin of eggs in intestines inactivates biotin.
At short-term cooking (soft-boiled) eggs there is a destruction of ovomucoid and coagulation of avidin. As a result of squirrels of the light-boiled eggs it is acquired almost completely (98%). Long cooking (hard-boiled) eggs or their frying cause a denaturation of protein and reduce its comprehensibility. During the cooking of soft-boiled eggs or hard-boiled, and also during the frying of fried eggs of losses of vitamins and mineral substances practically does not occur. However the preparation of omelets demanding longer thermal treatment is followed by loss of protein (4 — 6%), fat (4 — 8%), vitamins Ah, Vkh and carotene (to 10%).
Egg powder before use is presoaked for 30 min. in a cold water (on 1 part of powder take 0,5 parts of water). Melange is defrozen at the room temperature or in warm water and applied according to a compounding.
The eggs laid by the birds sick with a salmonellosis (see) or pti-tsami-bacillicarriers, can be infected. The eggs laid by a healthy bird in most cases are sterile, but at joint storage infected and not - the infected eggs infection of the last is possible. Are most subject to infection of egg with the contaminated shell. The sanitary legislation of the USSR prohibited sale of eggs of the waterfowl who are most often infected with salmonellas and eggs with the contaminated shell. Industrial processing of such eggs includes high-temperature processing, and the received egg powder is applied only in culinary production.
Eggs are perishable good. It is necessary to store them in the refrigerator at t ° — 1 — 2 ° and relative humidity of 85 — 88%. Egg powder, dry egg white and yolk in industrial packaging is stored up to 6 months at t ° 20 ° and relative humidity of 65 — 75% and up to 2 years at t ° 2 °. The defrozen melange is not subject to storage. -
the chestvo of eggs is checked by means of an ovoskop: detection at raying of eggs of hulls indicates existence of putrefactive processes.
The recommended norm of consumption of eggs by the adult on average no more than 1 piece a day. Use I. the item in food by the persons having diseases of a liver, gall bladder, kidneys and urinary tract, and also faces of senile age it has to be limited. I am not recommended to use. the item for food of the children having diathesis.
Table. CONTENT of IRREPLACEABLE AMINO ACIDS IN EGGS
And YaYTsEPRODUKTAH (in mg on 100 g of an edible part of a product)
the Bibliography: Petrovsky K. S. ivan-x and N e V. D's N. Hygiene of food, M., 1982; Chemical composition of foodstuff, under the editorship of M. F. Nesterin and I. M. Skuri - cinchona, M., 1979; Chemical composition of foodstuff, under the editorship of. A. A, Pokrovsky, M., 1976; Chemical composition of foodstuff, under the editorship of. I. M. Skuri - cinchona and V. A. Shaternikova, M., 1984.
I. M. Skurikhin.