From Big Medical Encyclopedia

EDUCATIONAL HOUSE, CHILDREN'S SHELTER — the institutions existing in the past for education of street children and foundlings.

The first educational houses («brefotrofiya») appeared in 4 century in Asia Minor (Caesarea). In Europe the first educational house was opened in 787 g by the Milan archbishop, then in 1180 — in Montpellier (France) and in 1198 — in Rome. Later they were created in many states of Europe and America. So, in 1888 only in Italy there were 115 educational houses.

In Russia up to 18 century under the authority of the patriarchal order there were orphan houses. The first educational house («siropitatelnitsa») for «illegitimate and any thrown up babies» was created in 1706 at the Novgorod monastery. Soon their number increased to ten «in which orphans to three thousand was in a meeting». In the next years educational houses arose at other monasteries and tserkva. In Moscow the first educational house was open in 1764, in St. Petersburg — in 1771.

The church and monasteries were interested in creation of educational houses since they quite often used children as free labor. The educational houses generally arriving from the charitable organizations, various collecting and donations were financed.

Educational houses for the first time got Nek-ry state support at Peter I, under the Decree to-rogo in 1712 were open «gosh-fed» for the illegitimate and thrown babies. However, despite big requirement, educational houses at that time were not widely adopted, and after Peter I's death many of them were closed.

Under Catherine II's decree educational houses were ranked as public institutions, however the means were not provided for their contents, and they continued to exist on «dobrokhotny handouts of philanthropists».

To educational houses only illegitimate children were accepted, as a rule. However much and the thrown children from poor families got there owing to what they were constantly crowded.

Because of unsatisfactory dignity. - a gigabyte. conditions, big congestion and bad leaving pupils of educational houses badly developed, incidence and mortality was very high among them. So, in the Moscow educational house in 1767 from the accepted 1089 children died 1073 (98,5%).

In this regard in 1767 transfer of children on education was entered into country families for a payment. 3 rub a month were paid to a family for education of the child on the first year of life, years — 1 rub are more senior. Villages, in to-rykh were placed children from educational houses, combined territorially to so-called districts, and for overseeing health and control of education of children founded district supervisors.

Introduction of this system significantly did not improve a fate of pupils. Broad development of «nursery trade» since children got on education most part to the poor country families interested in receiving this scanty money was its consequence. Could not carry out effective overseeing by wards by children and district supervisors since among them doctors were almost not, and the territory of districts was very big (100 — 150 settlements which were on considerable removal from each other). Therefore all work of supervisors, as a rule, came down to formal poll of tutors (every two years) about whether the child taken on education is living.

According to the government directive since 1837 in the Russian and district cities for contempt of the thrown babies and street children aged up to 10 — 14 years instead of educational houses began to create children's shelters. They were developed by the most part at women's almshouses where care of children was carried out by the women living there, and also at provincial and district hospitals. Living conditions of children in children's shelters remained unsatisfactory, incidence and mortality, especially children of early age, were very high. So, in 1891 in children's shelters of the Smolensk province mortality reached 84,7%.

For the purpose of improvement of service of children many zemstvoes began to provide and build for children's shelters special buildings (in Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Samara, Voronezh, Oryol, etc.)? many territorial provincial and district justices began to invite for the management of shelters of female doctors, for the aid to them — feldsheritsa, and for care of children — nurses. Attempts to organize control of health of the children given on education, forces of rural doctors the, and also female doctors and feldsheritsa who are specially invited for this purpose became. But positive takes in service of children were not reached.

Fighting against homelessness and child mortality, nek-ry zemstvoes organized in the village children's shelters for the summer period (day nursery shelters). By 1898 in Russia, on V. V. Shengelidze's materials, 234 day nursery shelters were registered; in them more than 25 000 children were serviced during the summer period. A day nursery shelters reached the greatest development during 1899 — 1904. Zemstvoes, charitable institutions took part in their financing. However a day nursery shelters was not widely adopted since there was neither strong financial base, nor shots.

High incidence and mortality of children in educational houses and children's shelters concerned many progressive public figures of that time. In them many advanced doctors were engaged in studying of the reasons of high child mortality (H. M. Ambodik-Maksimovich, K. A. Raukhfus, etc.), a question of a condition of service of children in children's shelters was discussed at pirogovsky congresses, however in the conditions of the imperial mode it is essential it was impossible to improve a fate of pupils of educational houses and children's shelters.

Only at the Soviet power thanks to increase in the material and cultural standard of living of workers the problem of homelessness and tossing of babies was liquidated (see. Homelessness, neglect ).

Creation of the state system of protection of motherhood and the childhood, the state legislative protection of interests of mother and child, broad involvement of women in production, their material independence and equality — all this led to complete elimination of a problem of «base blood» (see. Protection of motherhood and infancy ). Children's shelters were closed in 1918 since need for institutions of this kind disappeared. For education of the children who lost parents, and also children of the lonely mothers who wished to give them on the state education in the USSR well-planned children's homes (for children up to 3 years) and orphanages (for children after 3 years) were created where children are on full state providing and receive full general and medical care: education is carried out by the qualified pedagogical shots (see. Orphanage , Children's home ).

Bibliography: Konyus E. M. Ways of development of the Soviet protection of motherhood and infancy (1917 — 1940), M., 1954, bibliogr.; Lebedeva V. P. The passable stages, M., 1927; Lomonosov M. V. Chosen philosophical works, L., 1950; Rashkovich M. P. To a question of contempt of the thrown children by public institutions, Works of the 4th congress of Russian doctors in Pirogov's memory, page 296, M., 1892.

N. V. Manannikova.