ECUADOR (Republic of Ecuador) — the state in a northwest part of South America. Borders on Colombia and Peru, includes the archipelago of Galápagos and some other islands in the Pacific Ocean. The area is 275,34 thousand sq.km. Population of 9,257 million people (1983). The capital — Quito (844 thousand zhit.). In the administrative relation is divided into 20 provinces, to-rye are subdivided into cantons. Ofits. language — Spanish.
The head of state and the governments is the president. The legislature belongs to the National House of Representatives.
On an environment the country is divided into 3 areas: in the center there is Sierra — the Andes uplands representing two mountain chains height of St. 3000 m with rather narrow tableland between them; in the northeast Oryente — the foothill plain with dense network of the rivers, inflows of Amazon is located; in the West
Costa — the coastal lowland lies; areas Sierra and Costa of a vysokoseysmichna. Climate equatorial and subequatorial. Apprx. 80% of the territory of the country it is covered with the woods, in to-rykh there are many valuable breeds of trees (cinchonic, balsa, rubber-bearing plants, etc.).
AA. — the agrarian and industrial country which is in big dependence on foreign market. Agriculture does not provide the need for grain and proteinaceous food stuffs. Grow up bananas, coffee, cocoa, corn, wheat, rice, potatoes, breed cattle, sheep, goats, lamas. There are fields of silver, gold, copper, zinc, etc. A primary branch of the industry is oil production. Manufacturing industry is presented by oil refining and cement works, the enterprises of chemical, woodworking, food and light industry. Domestic industries are widespread.
39% of the population — Indians, mainly the Quechua, 41% — metises, 10% — white, 10% — Blacks. The population accommodates unevenly, average density 29 people on 1 sq.km. The natural movement of the population in 1980 (for 1000 the population): birth rate 35,3; general mortality 7,4; natural increase 23,9. The average duration of the forthcoming life is 62,6 years. Child mortality 77 on 1000 live-born (1980 — 1985).
The structure of incidence and mortality of the population prevails inf. diseases. Most often intestinal infections, malaria, measles, whooping cough, tuberculosis, a gonococcal infection and other venereal diseases, a frambeziya, yellow fever, hemorrhagic fever of a dengue, a viral hepatitis, poliomyelitis, a sapropyra, plague, a leprosy, the American trypanosomiasis, etc. are registered. In 1980 in the country the center of an onchocercosis was found. The acute respiratory infections, pneumonia, diseases connected with frustration of food (are especially often noted among Indians), are widespread in mountainous areas — a local craw.
In 1974 intestinal infections (112,4 on 100 000 population), flu and pneumonia (89,1), bronchitis, emphysema of lungs and asthma (71,8), diseases of the blood circulatory system (64,7), accidents, poisonings and injuries (53,3) were the main reasons for death.
In a health system E. forms of the state health care, insurance and private-capitalist medicine are combined. A number of healthcare institutions belongs public, religioz
to ny, charitable and other associations. The supreme body of management of health care is the Ministry of Health.
In 1973 in the country was available 221 to lay down. the establishment on 13 594 beds (20,2 on 10 000 population) giving stationary help from them 109 state, 10 private noncommercial and 102 private. Among all stationary medical institutions there would be 124 general, 25 rural BCs, 30 maternity homes, 6 children's BCs, 4 infectious, 2 oncological-tsy, 1 cardiological and 1 neurologic-tsa, 5 BCs of an ophthalmologic and otolaryngologic profile, 1 orthopedic clinic, 11 tubercular BCs, 8 psychiatric BCs, 3 hospitals for treatment of patients with a leprosy. Vnebolnich-ny help was given by 780 healthcare institutions (including 77 out-patient departments of BC, 265 centers of health care and medical posts, 426 clinics and clinics and 12 other institutions). Name and content of work of healthcare institutions E. not always corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).
In recent years measures for improvement of medical service of country people, generally by expansion of network of medical posts, the accelerated training of workers primary medical - a dignity are taken. the help from among locals, training in methods of modern medicine of traditional doctors and midwifes.
The centralized water supply is available only in the cities. In 1978 high-quality drinking water provided 70% of city and 15% of country people, with systems of removal of garbage — respectively 69% and 11%.
In 1977 in the country 4660 doctors (6,17 for 10 000 population), 1294 nurses, 8028 assistants to nurses, 166 midwifes and 146 druggists worked. According to 1977, there were 1370 dentists.
Training of doctors is carried out at medical faculties of 5 universities, 4 of to-rykh belong to the state. At faculties train also nurses, midwifes and some other categories of paramedical staff.
Bibliography: Year-book of world sanitary statistics, Geneva, 1983; Health care of foreign countries, under the editorship of O. P. Shchepin, M., 1981; The Countries and the people,
America, South America, under the editorship of Yu. V. Bromley, page 78, M., 1983; The Sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 196, Geneva, 1981; World health statistics annual 1984, Geneva, 1984. V. V. Fedorov.