In development human about-va, changes of its social structure, technical and economic capabilities, esthetic and cultural requirements also the dwelling changed.
To the primitive person the dwelling (caves) served only as protection against adverse meteorol, conditions. This purpose of the dwelling remained also at a primitive-communal system. In the subsequent public formations purpose of the dwelling extended, it became the vacation spot, implementation of labor and household processes.
The dwelling as the habitat which is artificially created by the person is among social factors since living conditions along with working conditions and food define the state of health of the population.
The cold crude dwellings deprived of access of a sunlight and air the high density of settling promote increase in incidence and mortality. So, the observations made in 1911 — 1912 among workers in the Smolensk province revealed correlative communication between the incidence and air volume falling on 1 person in the dwelling: the more «the air cube», the is lower incidence of adults and children.
By data A. N. Sysina, in pre-revolutionary St. Petersburg tuberculosis mortality in working districts was three times higher, than in rich quarters. In Vienna at the end of 19 — the beginning of 20 centuries in quarters of the propertied classes mortality was three times lower, than in the districts occupied by the poor.
The housing problem gained special sharpness during an era of emergence and development of capitalism. The brightest characteristic of living conditions of the working European capitalist cities of 19 century is given in F. Engels's works «Position of working class in England» (1845) and «To a housing question» (1872 — 1873).
The hardest living conditions were characteristic also of pre-revolutionary Russia which became on the way of capitalist development. Rates of housing construction sharply lagged behind growth of number of urban population, a cut increased from 7,4 million in 1867 to 23,3 million in 1914. The mass of alien workers settled on suburbs of the cities, filling cellars, attics, semi-summer constructions, dosshouse houses. In cellars of St. Petersburg in 1912 more than 63 thousand residents, and huddled in cellars of Moscow — St. 124 thousand. Extremely severe living conditions, unreasonably high rent, beggarly earnings of workers generated so-called koyechno-kamorochny trade, essence to-rogo was in what poor families for a covering of a part of maintenance costs of the dwelling accepted to themselves on a lodging for the night, handed over beds, corners, storerooms and attics. Koyechno-kamorochny trade was eurysynusic in all industrial centers of Russia. The living space on 1 person in working settlements of industrial centers made only 2 — 4 m 2 , and in factory barracks and collective apartments to 1,5 m 2 .
The housing problem continues to remain unresolved and in the modern capitalist countries. The high rent leads to expansion existing and to emergence of new slums. According to the International Labour Organization, in the advanced industrial countries have no dwellings of 30 million families, and in underdeveloped 150 million families. 1/4 part of all citizens of the USA live in the uncomfortable houses; 10 million American families live in slums.
With special sharpness the problem of the dwelling is felt in economically not developed countries. Apprx. a half of town houses of Bolivia have no water supply, and 54% — sewerages; respectively in Venezuela — 43 and 67%.
Great October socialist revolution cancelled the right of a private property for city lands and large households and by that eliminated the main obstacle in a solution of a housing problem. At once after the victory of socialist revolution in Russia the Soviet power carried out a number of the measures directed to satisfaction of need of workers for the dwelling. The government made the decision on «housing repartition»: households of the bourgeoisie were transferred to city councils and to well-planned buildings mass resettlement of working families from slums is organized.
In the party program adopted at the VIII congress of RCP(b), the special section formulated the problems of party in the field of housing construction providing improvement of living conditions of workers of masses, destruction of density and an anti-dignity. conditions in old quarters, elimination unusable, reorganization old, construction of new dwellings.
After the end of civil war during recovery of the national economy in the large industrial centers working settlements and residential quarters were constructed. Mass housing construction, scales to-rogo during industrialization of the country in the first five-years period began allowed to liquidate slums. In days of the second and third five-years periods the existing cities were reconstructed (Novosibirsk, Sverdlovsk, Baku, etc.), built new (Magnitogorsk, Zaporizhia, etc.); their construction went on the way of creation of the finished housing estates including both residential buildings, and the servicing institutions (schools, kindergartens, shops). In total for years of pre-war five-years periods (1929 — 1941) 129,7 million m were constructed 2 actual living space.
Housing construction received especially big scope after the Great Patriotic War. From 1946 for 1973 in the country 1732,4 million m are constructed 2 total living space; for three post-war five-years periods of 45 million people improved the living conditions.
Huge social value has implementation in practice of mass housing construction of standard projects of residential buildings with apartments for posemeyny settling that allows to realize the task set by the CPSU — to provide each family, including families of newlyweds, with the certain well-planned apartment.
Design and construction of dwellings is carried out in our country according to «Construction norms and rules». Doctors-hygienists also take part in their development. On the basis of achievements of scientific and technical progress, specification of a row a gigabyte. standards and requirements the dwelling is constantly improved. Under housing construction the land plots removed from industrial and page are allocated - x. complexes (see. Town planning , the Design of the inhabited places ).
A basic element of the dwelling is the inhabited cell (apartment), edges is considered or as autonomous unit (an individual, one-apartment house), or as an element of a house and intends for one family.
The apartment consists of the main (a bedroom, a drawing room, a study) and auxiliary (kitchen, a lobby, a bathroom, the bathroom) rooms. The area of the main rooms — so. naz. the living space — is defined at the rate of 9 m 2 on one person living in the apartment. It is the minimum area allowing to provide indoors sufficient air exchange (see) and the air volume (an air cube) falling on one person.
The principle of restriction of accumulation in air of rooms of waste products of the person is put in a basis of definition of an air cube and norms of air exchange. As the indicator of their presence carbon dioxide is accepted (see. Ventilation ).
Proceeding from amount of the carbon dioxide exhaled by the person in an hour and limit admissible concentration to the dwelling of anthropotoxins, an air cube on the person shall make not less than 40 — 60 m 3 .
The large role in air exchange is played by height of rooms since the contaminated layer of air most often concentrates in pripotolochny space. Height of rooms plays a part and in formation of a microclimate of rooms (see. Microclimate ).
Not less depth of rooms and the relation of length to width is important. Depth of the living room, i.e. distance from svetonesushchy to an internal, opposite wall, defines conditions of its natural lighting (see. Lighting ).
One of the major factors defining comfort in the apartment is the number of the family members falling on one room. The less number of family members are the share of each living room, the extent of isolation of each of them is higher, the conditions for their accommodation, education of children, rest and homework are more favorable. In this regard the general tendency of development of an inhabited cell in the USSR comes down to increase in the apartment of number of rooms.
Summer open rooms (balconies, loggias, verandahs) are arranged in all dwellings of the South of the country, and also in the majority of apartments of other climatic districts. The size makes them from 10 to 20% of total area of the apartment.
The general room shall be directly connected with a lobby, bedrooms shall not be checkpoints. The kitchen, a bathroom and the bathroom in order to avoid receipts to premises of excess of heat, combustion products of gas and foreign smells are isolated from premises.
In order that the apartment could satisfy requirements of any family with identical numerical, but different age and sex structure, at design the principle of an alternative (flexible) design of apartments is in certain cases applied. It is that rigidly constants have only an arrangement of kitchens and bathrooms. Ostalnaya Square of the apartment by means of easy collapsible partitions can be divided at the request of residents into any number of rooms and is adapted for individual needs of family members.
Number of storeys of the building, set and the equipment of auxiliary rooms of the dwelling has significant effect on conditions of accommodation of the population. One-apartment one - and the two-storeyed houses built in rural areas provide to the families living in them the best conditions of insolation and a great opportunity for use of house adjoining territories. At the same time in apartment houses it is easier to provide the maximum improvement of apartments — central heating (see) and water supply (see), ventilation, the centralized removal of garbage (see. Refuse chute ), etc. Considering mass character, typification and industrialization of housing construction, apartment houses are built not only in the cities, but also in rural settlements.
Apartments can be placed on any floor of a house except for basement and socle where the mark of a floor is lower than the level of the earth.
In houses of the increased number of storeys and especially in high-rise buildings in connection with increase in vertical flows of air on staircases danger of deterioration in composition of air increases in apartments of upper floors. It defines special importance of providing such buildings with reliable and effective system of ventilation.
Multi-storey buildings are equipped with elevators which device needs to be begun with 5-storey houses already. In houses with smaller number of storeys for convenience of raising of a ladder shall have a bias 28 — 30 °, width of steps of 28 cm, height of 14 cm, quantity of steps in a march no more than 9 — 12.
Distinguish two types of houses: room and hotel.
Houses of room type consist generally of 2-and 3-roomed apartments united in sections. In districts with a temperate climate houses with 3-, 4-apartment sections in which apartments are reported directly with a staircase, as a rule, are under construction. In yuzh. districts there are houses with 2-apartment sections. At such design the best possibility of through airing of apartments is provided. The device of apartment sections with deadlock corridors, without natural lighting as it takes place in houses of the increased number of storeys, is inexpedient; it worsens conditions of airing of apartments.
Lodging houses intend for lonely and families in two persons. They consist of small apartments with the reduced structure of utility rooms and have the developed sector of rooms of collective use. Apartments consist of the living room with the isolated berth; small lobby, kitchen and bathroom. The area of the living room for lonely — 12 m 2 .
Hostels which are under construction for lonely, most often young workers and students were widely adopted. The main rooms of hostels are presented by bedrooms on 1, 2, 3, at most the 4th persons. Minimalnaya square of a bedroom at one person in hostels for working makes 4,5 m 2 , and for students, considering the need for furniture for individual occupations — 6 m 2 .
Hostels have expanded structure of auxiliary rooms — a lobby with clothes, kitchens - vat, rooms of day stay and studies, still-rooms, reading rooms, rooms for cleaning of clothes and footwear, storerooms for storage of personal belongings, economic and linen rooms, laundry places, rooms of service personnel, bathrooms, insulators etc.
Existence of these rooms and a design of buildings shall provide optimal conditions for rest and individual occupations. For this purpose the main and a part of auxiliary rooms of daily use combine in section of corridor type, each bedroom has an independent entrance from a corridor, it is better through a lock lobby. For ensuring through airing unilateral building of corridors is most reasonable.
At bilateral building and an arrangement of windows in face walls length of a corridor shall not exceed 40 m; with a bigger length through each 20 m «light pockets» — the gaps, halls used for day rest living are arranged.
Dignity. - a gigabyte. the condition of the dwelling is determined by their orientation by the countries of light, the warm and soundproofing properties of the protecting designs, quality and overall performance a dignity. - tekhn, devices and the kitchen equipment, the materials used for finishing of rooms.
Orientation of buildings and rooms defines conditions of their insolation, natural lighting and has significant effect on a microclimate. Natural lighting (see. Lighting ) it is reached due to penetration through svetoproyema of straight lines (insolation) and the sunshine disseminated by the atmosphere. An ultra-violet part of a solar range has bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect therefore the direct sunshine getting into the room reduce the content in air of pathogenic bacteriums and a possibility of spread of infectious diseases. Insolation of rooms increases illumination, at the same time, getting to the room, direct sunshine reduce uniformity of lighting, cause emergence of patches of light and excessive brightness of an interior. An infrared part of direct sunbeams possesses thermal action: heating a surface of walls, a glazing and furnishings, it promotes temperature increase of air of rooms and can cause an overheat of the people who are in them. Thus, excess insolation can have an adverse effect on conditions of accommodation. Orientation of buildings shall provide minimum necessary 3-hour insolation of the main rooms of the apartment. Since insolation of rooms is defined by height of standing of the sun over the horizon, optimum and admissible orientation change depending on width.
So, in the areas located to the south of 45 °C. highway, optimum is yuzh. and South vost. orientation since sunshine at high standing of the sun over the horizon do not get deeply into rooms and do not cause their overheat. In order to avoid an overheat of the rooms oriented on yuzh. rhumbs of the horizon, in warm season use of sun-protection devices in the form of blinds, visors and other speakers of designs, marchionesses, curtains is necessary. Use of special heat-absorbing glasses and vertical gardening of walls of loggias and balconies, and also gardening of the adjacent territory vysokokronny trees is effective. In the districts located to the north 52 °C. highway, it is admissible zap., vost., and also North zap. and North vost. orientation.
For ensuring 3-hour insolation of premises of multi-storey buildings it is important to exclude blackout their neighboring buildings. For this purpose the distance between buildings shall be not less than 2 — 2,5 of their heights.
Optimum conditions of a microclimate for the person are provided with certain combinations of temperature, humidity, mobility of air and temperature of the protecting surfaces (walls, ceilings „a floor, the glazed svetoproyem) which change depending on climatic conditions of the area, a season of year, clothes of people and purpose of rooms.
Optimal conditions of a microclimate can be provided by means of any centralized systems of heating, both convective and radiant (radiator), and preferential radiant (panel and radiant) and convective (convectors, air heating). The increasing attention is paid to convective systems of heating which allow to provide dynamism of a microclimate and at the same time serve for their ventilation.
On a gigabyte. the condition of the dwelling exerts a great influence gasification of apartments. Use of gas stoves causes temperature increase and air humidities, accumulation in it of toxic products of incomplete combustion of gas. One gas burner at 3-hour burning of gas is capable to increase air temperature in kitchen with a cubic capacity of 21 m 3 on 4 °, and humidity for 3 — 5%. Content of carbonic acid in air at the same time reaches 5 per milles, carbon monoxide of 0,1 — 0,3 mg/l, sulfur dioxide gas of 0,009 mg/l. Use of the gas equipment with a free flame and insufficient ventilation of kitchens and bathrooms is the main reasons for deterioration in the air environment of the installed gas rooms. Considerably use of the effective exhaust ventilation, different types of advanced gas burners, and also flameless ceramic torches which provide completeness of combustion of gas improves conditions of the air environment of the installed gas kitchens. In kitchens, bathrooms and bathrooms there has to be a reliable exhaust ventilation providing the directed air flow from premises in subsidiary.
Considering negative influence on an organism of noise and vibrations, it is necessary to provide the favorable acoustic and vibration mode of residential buildings. The main sources of the noise which is easily getting into houses, and vibrations are city passenger and cargo transport. In addition to street noise, the noise and vibration mode of the dwelling is influenced by the noise arising in the neighboring apartments from a conversation, playing musical instruments, uses of radio and TVs and noise from run, dances, movements of furniture. The working elevators, motors, heating vent systems create noise. According to the current legislation, in residential buildings in day and evening (from 8 to 22 hours) the total level of noise 35 dB, and at night (from 22 to 8 hours) — 30 dB is admissible. Influence of street noise can be weakened by the rational design of residential areas and residential districts and their gardening reducing intensity of noise from thoroughfares (see. the Design of the inhabited places ). In decrease in noise levels an important role is played by acoustic properties of barriers and overlappings of buildings.
Deleting of sides between the city and the village gradually liquidates distinction of city and rural dwellings. However some distinctions caused by features of page - x. work and existence of personal plots, remain. One-apartment houses on the estate separate from the street a front garden 5 — 7 m wide.
For rural construction 4-roomed apartments are recommended generally 3-. Except the general room, bedrooms for adults and children, kitchen, by a lobby and the storeroom, the area for the room of hygiene shall be provided in an outer entrance hall in not channeled areas, it is used for bathing of children, washing, washing of linen, i.e. corresponds to a bathroom in houses with plumbing and sanitary. It is the best of all to locate the room of hygiene between kitchen and the bathroom.
The apartment in the house intended on one family can be located both on one, and on 2 floors. In the latter case on the 2nd floor sleeping rooms are placed. It is not allowed to combine under the same roof housing and the room for animals. Hlev shall not adjoin directly a house.
Huge scales of industrial construction, development of new districts cause the necessity of the device of temporary dwellings barracks, cars on wheels or sled runners. For providing favorable conditions for accommodation at them there has to be sufficient heat insulation of barriers; for heating it is allowed to use the metal furnaces which are laid over by a brick.
The areas of bedrooms in these dwellings are defined at the rate of not less than 3,5 m 2 on the person (to 2 m 2 in mobile dwellings) and air cube not less than 15 m 3 .
Bibliography: A. V rams. Sociological problems, Construction and architecture, No. 6, page 11, 1967; At e r N-skiyyu., Etc. Hygienic aspects of construction of residential buildings of the increased number of storeys, the Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 4, page 26, 1969, bibliogr.; Kartasheva K. Family and dwelling, M., 1972; Sidorenko G. I. and Provincial Yu. D. Topical issues of hygiene of new housing construction, Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 10, page 7, 1970; they, Master plan of development of Moscow and problem of hygiene of residential and public buildings, in the same place, No. 6, page 13, 1972; Social problems of medicine, under the editorship of. A. Ya. Boyarsky and B. Ya. Smulevich, page 29, M., 1968.
Yu. D. Gubernsky, E. I. Korenevskaya.