From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DRUGS ANATOMIC (Latin to prepare praeparare, praeparatum prepared) — the visual aids representing normal or patholologically the changed bodies, systems of bodies or area of a body of a corpse of the person or an animal which are specially prepared with the educational or scientific purpose. Main requirements to P. and.: demonstrativeness and a possibility of long preservation in close to natural a look.

Fig. 1. Wet preparation of the head and neck: arteries and nerves of occipital area of the head and back area of a neck are visible (arteries are injected by red weight).
Fig. 2. Corrosion preparation of blood vessels of the newborn with elements of a skeleton.
Fig. 3. The brightened-up drug of a small egg and seed cord, injected by mercury.
Fig. 4. Dry drug of a brush and distal part of a forearm with sinews of extensor muscles of fingers.
Fig. 5. Wet preparation of a brush and a distal part of a forearm (superficial veins and absorbent vessels are injected by the blue mass of Gerota).
Fig. 6. Wet preparation of a popliteal space: nerves and lymph nodes and vessels injected by the blue mass of Gerota are visible.
Fig. 7. Corrosion preparation of arterial system of kidneys. (Drugs of the museum of department of normal anatomy 1 MMI of I. M. Sechenov.)

Item and. prepare at departments normal, topographical and patol. anatomy of medical in-t, in pathoanatomical departments of BC, and also at departments of zoology. P.'s preparations and. consist of fixing and preparation of an object (preparation, filling of vessels or hollow bodies color masses, a cut of the frozen corpses according to N. I. Pirogov, etc.), installation of drug (selection of ware, fastening of drug, sealing of ware, napr, Mendeleyev's putty, marking and drawing up the summary). Item and., intended for occupations in the section hall, are stored in the preserving solutions in special tanks (bathtubs). The mounted anatomic prepatata are exhibited at the anatomic museums.

Depending on a way of preparation of P. and. it is possible to subdivide on wet, dry, corrosion and brightened up (tsvetn. fig. 1 — 7).

Wet preparations are most widespread as they are rather demonstrative and well remain. As preserving r-a ditch apply 5 — 10% the solution of formalin prepared on a distilled water, alcohol and a number of the mixes offered by A. I. Abrikosov, G. M. Iosifov, N. K. Lysenkov, Lyaskovsky, etc. The main preservative was alcohol earlier. Further the preserving liquids which part various components (were see were offered. Vyvodtseva liquid , Vikkersgeymera liquid ). In the 90th 19 century for P.'s preservation and. began to use formalin (see). However formalin changed natural color of fabrics in this connection searches of the liquids which are not changing P.'s coloring were conducted and. Methods of preservation of P. of ampere-second preservation of vital staining were developed in 1896 by N. F. Melnikov-Razvedenkov and Kayserling. The liquids offered by Melnikov-Razvedenkov have the following structure. First liquid: formalin of 100 ml, potassium chloride of 5 g, potassium acetate (or sodium) 30 g, water of 1 l; second liquid: glycerin of 600 ml, potassium acetate (or sodium) 400 g, water of 1 l. In the beginning an object is fixed during 1 days — 2 weeks depending on its size and features of a structure in formalin and salt mix (the first liquid), at the same time hemoglobin of blood passes into a methemoglobin. The natural color of body is recovered in 85 — 90% alcohol by transition of a methemoglobin to cathemoglobin (neutral hematin) similar on color to oxyhemoglobin. Then drug is placed in a glass jar with the second liquid, in a cut it can be stored long time. Dzhor 1958) for recovery of color P. and. suggested to place an object in 2% water solution of spirit of ammonia after preliminary fixing it in 10% solution of formalin and water flushing. P.'s installation and. at the same time make in Meyler's liquid containing saturated solution of antimony trioxide, potassium acetate, Chlorali hydras and glycerin.

Dry drugs keep without liquid, mounted on supports or in bottletight cameras. Way of preservation of P. and. in the air environment in the way of their room to bottletight cameras it is developed in 1907 by V. Shor. For P.'s preservation and. in a dry form after fixing also apply glycerin or, e.g., sorbitic syrup and potassium acetate. Glitserin (see) well impregnates fabrics, replacing in them water and protecting drug from rotting; potassium acetate, besides, has property to keep natural color of drug.

Methods of production of dry P. of ampere-second preservation of their natural look are developed in 1955 by M. G. Prives with sotr. Apply a so-called injection way to demonstration of blood vessels (filling of vessels color masses). M. G. Prives suggested to fill a vascular bed with dark red synthetic rubber (latex) which gives to drug elasticity, durability and paints it. After filling of vessels drug is immersed in the boiling water solution of glycerin, and then dried up. By N. S. Harchenko (1943) method anatomic objects subject to preservation by drying by the hot air blown under pressure via veins. M. G. Prives modified this method, having suggested to apply on the surface of the prepared dry drug a protective film from 5% of solution of polyisobutylene in gasoline or benzene for prevention of further drying. For elimination of gloss the surface of drug is covered with a thin coat of a nitro flat lacquer. Reduction of their volume, wrinkling of fabrics, change of natural color belongs to shortcomings of dry drugs. Dry P. and. also drugs of bones are. For their preparation use maceration (soaking), boiling down with the subsequent degreasing and whitening.

To dry P.' group and. so-called lamellar drugs adjoin. They are trained by the conclusion of cuts of a brain and other bodies in flat vessels or a glass framework which fill with the stiffening transparent environment (paraffin, glue weight, various methacrylates, polystyrene, etc.). Pakkett (W. Lake of Puckett, 1940 — 1941), M. G. The additional weight (1955), Romanyak (1947) offered an original method of preservation of P. and. by the conclusion them in organic glass On V. T. Talalayev P. way and. place in specially prepared agar-agar.

Corrosion preparations represent molds of vessels or hollow bodies. The big contribution to development of methods of production of corrosion preparations was made by I. V. Buyalsky, Y. Girtl, etc. Preparation of corrosion preparations consists of three consecutive stages: 1) filling of a vessel or body acid resisting or alkali-proof masses, 2) destruction (corrosion) of fabric of body or a vascular wall, 3) removal of the destroyed fabrics and water flushing. Bodies or vessels fill cold (photoxylin, organic glass, latex, etc.) or hot (wax, voskosmolyany and metal) masses. Mendeleyev's putty belongs to wax masses, in particular, (rosin of 1000, natural wax of 250 g, anhydrous iron oxide in the form of colourings «mummy» or «iron ochre» of 400 g and linseed oil from 3 to 10 g). Apply to corrosion or water solutions nitric or salt to - t of the increasing concentration (30%, and then 70%), or 35% solution of caustic potassium. After its termination the mold is washed out water and mounted, placing in bank with solution of formalin or alcohol, or keep in a dry form. Corrosion P. are most widespread and. vessels of heart, liver, kidney, spleen, placenta, bronchial tree.

The brightened-up drugs give the chance against the background of transparent fabric to see intraorganic vessels (sometimes they are previously filled with color masses). arrangement of channels or ossification centers in the developing bones. The brightened-up drugs have bigger value in macromicroscopical anatomy (see. Macromicroscopy ). By the main method of production of the brightened-up P. and. Shpaltegolts's method is (see. Shpaltegoltsa method ). Methods of an enlightenment were developed also by N. I. Anserov, V. P. Vasilyev, D. A. Zhdanov and A. A. Krasusskaya, etc. Transparency of fabrics can be reached by means of use physical and physical. - chemical ways. At physical ways of an enlightenment an opaque object is surrounded and impregnated with the substance having with it identical index of refraction owing to what drug becomes transparent. At physical. - chemical ways under a vliya niy acid and hydroxylic ions a number of fabrics bulks up, connects water and turns into jellylike weight. V. P. Vorobyov for this purpose applied to studying of peripheral nerves to - you (acetic, oxalic, arsenous, etc.). Preparation of the brightened-up P. and. includes: 1) preparation of drug (filling of vessels, channels, etc.), 2) fixing by formalin or other liquids, 3) decalcification (for bones), 4) whitening by hydrogen peroxide, 5) water flushing, 6) dehydration in alcohols of the increasing fortress, 7) the placing in the clarifying liquid where drug is stored.

See also Histologic methods of a research .

Bibliography: Boguslavsky T. B. Production of topografo-anatomic drugs and technique of some anatomic researches, M., 1959, bibliogr.; Koveshnikova A. K. and Klebanova E. A. Ways of production of anatomic drugs, M., 1954; Krasusskaya A. A. The equipment of the corrosion and brightened-up drugs, Izv. Nauch. in-that of Lesgaft, t. 17-18, page 5, 1934; Additional weight M. G. Methods of conservation of anatomic drugs, L., 1956, bibliogr.; Talalayev V. T. 15 years' experience of a lamellar museum method, Laborat. prakt., No. 7, page 1, 1929; G. V's Blinders. To technology of processing and preservation of museum drugs, the Russian doctor, t. 9, No. 49, page-1882, 1910; it sh e, To a question of preparation of anatomic drugs, Medical obozr., t. 62, No. 18, page 398, 1904.

E. A. Vorobyova.