From Big Medical Encyclopedia

DREAMS (somnium, the singular) — figurative representations, quite often bright, fantastic, emotionally charged, arising during sleep and subjectively perceived as reality.

Healthy people, as a rule, remember the S. during the awakening from a phase bystry (on electrophysiologic indicators) a dream. During the awakening from a phase of a slow dream reports on S. meet seldom. As usually dream (see) contains 4 — 5 episodes of a REM sleep, to-rye a thicket are followed by experiences of one or even several S., it is possible to claim that each healthy person for all the time of a dream (usually night) sees not less than 4 dreams. But they are remembered only when awakening comes directly from a phase of a REM sleep in the morning or in the middle of the night. Therefore the people who are regularly wakening in the morning from a slow dream consider that they see S. very seldom.

Assume that animals also see S. during a REM sleep. So, after destruction at cats of kernels of locus coeruleus providing oppression of a muscle tone during a phase of a REM sleep, animals at approach of this phase of a dream carried out irregular shapes of agressive, defensive and research behavior, as if participating in own Pages. These data, and also results numerous lab. researches in public allow to consider a phase of a REM sleep fiziol. basis of Page. During this phase of a dream the brain blood stream amplifies, temperature of a brain increases, the frequency of pulse categories in neurons of a brainstem, bark of big hemispheres and a thalamus, and pattern of activity of neurons in all these educations same, as increases during a condition of the most active wakefulness. Activation of a cerebral cortex (see), S., characteristic of emergence, is relatively more expressed at the person in the right hemisphere. It corresponds to dominance in S. of space and figurative thinking. In the second half of night in the last episodes of a phase of a REM sleep when reports on S. become more detailed and coherent, distinctions in activity of the left and right hemispheres are leveled.

The majority of experimental data demonstrate that tonic components of a phase of a REM sleep (activation of bark of big hemispheres, oppression of a tone of cross-striped muscles) create necessary conditions for normal S. whereas S.'s maintenance correlates with features of physical components of a REM sleep. It is shown that extent of emotional coloring of S. is connected with heart rate and breath, degree of vasoconstriction and expressiveness of a galvanic skin response (see) in the last minutes of a REM sleep before awakening. Heart rate in a phase of a REM sleep depends also on extent of the imagined participation of the subject in a plot S. Odnako intensive changes of vegetative indicators are registered not only at reports on the bright, well memorable and emotionally rich S., but also in the absence of any informative reports.

It is established that the S. is brighter, the subject «participates» in them more actively and the easier they are remembered, the more intensively the bystry movements of eyes. At the same time the direction of movements of eyes before awakening corresponds to a spatial relationship of those objects in S., on to-rykh the look was last time fixed. Intervals between the movements of eyes sometimes correspond to the periods in S. when sleeping fixes a look on a motionless object. On the other hand, S. at ophthalmoplegias contain visual objects, but are not followed by the bystry movements of eyes, and in S. congenitally blind there are no visual objects though the movements of eyes are registered. At a so-called cortical blindness the quantity of bystry movements of eyes is reduced and they are directed only towards a safe field of vision, and at animals with a remote cerebral cortex the bystry movements of eyes remain, but become regular and monotonous. All this allows to assume that between the bystry movements of eyes and S. there is no rigid cause and effect dependence. Pages can influence for the second time intensity and an orientation of movements of eyes, but existence of the last depends only on safety of the trunk educations generating them.

High intensity of bystry movements of eyes as well as the expressed changes of vegetative indicators, sometimes meets and in the absence of informative reports on S. Vopros on the reason of lack of reports during the awakenings from a REM sleep is among the most disputable. Two hypotheses are in this respect offered. The first assumes «replacement» from consciousness of S.'s maintenance, unacceptable for the personality, capable to cause feeling of alarm and fear. The second hypothesis explains amnesia of maintenance of S. with the mechanism of an interference of S. with each other, and also with the impressions arising directly at the time of awakening. It is shown that morning reproduction of night S. depends on their singularity, a detail and an affective saturation and it is subordinated to patterns of mnestichesky activity. At the same time has a special role visual (figurative) memory (see). Apparently, in various conditions both mechanisms of an interference, and expulsion mechanisms play a role. In an origin of images of S. the big role belongs to mnestichesky processes. I. M. Sechenov called dreams «unknown combinations of skilled impressions». In S. the traces of a long-term memory connected even with accidental impressions of big prescription can become more active. At the same time impressions of the previous day influence S.'s maintenance in rather limited limits. Information coming to a brain from the outside during a REM sleep does not change cardinally S.'s plot, but, as a rule, joins in already developing plot. Time in S. passes with the same speed, as in wakefulness.

Experience and S.'s storing to a large extent depends on features of the personality and character of an emotional state before going to bed, and both of these factors interact with each other. In emotional and positive or neutral conditions reports on S. are most frequent and developed at psychologically highly sensitive persons inclined to alarming and depressive reactions. At decrease in mood before going to bed and in conditions emotional stress (see) at persons with low level of sensitivity and not inclined to alarm the number of reports on S. increases, and at highly sensitive, on the contrary, decreases. There are bases to assume that at such persons the «REM sleep — dreams» system works with a maximum load already in rather quiet conditions, and at an emotional stress there comes the functional decompensation of this system which is shown reduction of number of reports on S. U of persons with high emotional stability the «REM sleep — dreams» system works, as a rule, at lower limits of the opportunities, and the emotional stress leads to its activation. Therefore, reduction of number of informative reports on S. can be caused by two opposite factors — the low need for S. at persons with high mental stability and insufficient functionality of the system creating dreams at sensitive persons, in the conditions of an emotional stress.

Except level psikhol. sensitivity, reports on S. are influenced also by other personal factors. S.'s maintenance depends also on gender and age. Pages of men are more active, than at women, in them there are more motives of hostility to other men. At children, on the contrary, S. of girls, than dreams of boys are more active. Pages of children often reflect direct fulfillments of desires: boys see themselves in dreams performing adult work, and young men — a situation of the power over peers.

Dominance of figurative thinking provides a peculiar change of consciousness in S. Otsutstvuyet reflection of objective reality, knowledge of itself as about the subject of knowledge is broken, the person does not realize himself the seeing S. therefore there is no critical relation to the perceived events. At the same time the self-assessment and such emotions as sense of guilt and shame, are kept therefore the maintenance of dreams, unacceptable for the personality, is not realized. Such dissociation of consciousness creates conditions for S.'s performance of its functional tasks.

Results of numerous researches demonstrate that one of the main functions C. is emotional stabilization. The first systematic analysis of this function C. undertook 3. Freud, to-ry believed that the main task of S. consists in bringing to consciousness in the disguised look forced out biol. motives and unacceptable representations. Such treatment from modern positions admits limited. It is shown that S. make an important link in system psikhol. protection. Artificial deprivation of a phase of a REM sleep changes all structure of mechanisms psikhol. protection, the level of emotional tension raises, worsens storing of emotionally significant material, slows down processes of creative thinking. The need for S. is increased at neurotic alarm, a depression and all states, to-rye are characterized by failure from search of ways of change of an unacceptable situation. The functional inferiority of dreams which is shown in reduction of informative reports probably plays an important role in a pathogeny of neurosises and psychosomatic diseases.

The main method of studying of S. and their functions is the analysis of reports on mental experiences during the awakening from a phase of a REM sleep after various functional loads preceding backfilling. Such loadings include change of level of emotional tension, hypnotic influences, intellectual problems of different degree of complexity. Besides, apply the analysis of a mental state and behavior after artificial deprivation of a phase of a REM sleep or after change of nature of snovidenchesky activity with the above-stated functional loads or pharmakol. influences.

The method of psychoanalysis of S. eurysynusic in the West is very subjective.

Bibliography: Arshavsky V. V. and Rotenberg V. S. Influence of various types of behavioural reactions and emotional states on pathophysiological and clinical syndromes, Usp. fiziol. sciences, t. 9, No. 3, page 49, 1978; In e y A. M N. Sleep disorders and wakefulnesses, M., 1974, bibliogr.; In about l-p e r I. E t. Dreams in a usual dream and hypnosis, JI., 1966, bibliogr.; Questions of neurophysiology of emotions and a cycle wakefulness — a dream, under the editorship of T. N. Oniani, t. 1 — 3, Tbilisi, 1974 — 1979; Rotenberg V. S. Adaptive function of a dream, reason and manifestation of its disturbance, M., 1982; Cartwright R. D. Night life, explorations in dreaming, Prentice-Hall, 1977; Cohen D. B. Sleep and dreaming, origins, nature and functions, Oxford, 1979; The functions of sleep, ed. by R. Drucker-Colin and. lake, N. Y. a. o., 1979; Hall C. S. a. Van d e With a s t-1 e R. L. The content analysis of dreams, N. Y., 1966. V. S. Rotenberg.