DOUBTFUL PATERNITY — contest by the man of paternity concerning a certain child. The most frequent reasons for O. of page are civil cases about collecting the alimony, substitution of children, etc. Court. - the medical examination which is carried out in O.'s cases of page does not establish paternity, it can only exclude paternity in general or only concerning a certain child.
Depending on circumstances, on to-rye refer at contest of paternity, use various methods court. - medical examinations. E.g., establishment of discrepancy of term of childbirth and degree of a maturity of a fruit to estimated time of conception is reasoned argument against paternity of this man if in the most probable time determined by examination conceptions (see) estimated the father was absent or for other reasons could not have sexual relations with mother of the child. As a result court. - medical examinations inability of the defendant to the sexual intercourse and fertilization can be established if he refers to it as on the reason of contest of paternity (see. Impotence, in the medicolegal relation ). Comparison of isoserological systems and serumal blood groups of mother, child and alleged father allows to exclude estimated paternity in some cases (see. Blood groups, in the medicolegal relation ). Court. - villages carry out medical examination at O. on separate signs of group systems, and also phenotypes, haplotypes and genotypes. If it appears insufficiently, then find out a genotype of mother and alleged father of the child by a research of blood groups of their parents, and also brothers and sisters of the child. The great value at paternity proof is attached to the rare alleles and gene complexes causing rare phenotypes of group systems of blood. In each group system by quantity of the genes entering it, haplotypes and phenotypes the probability of an exception of paternity can be defined. Summing of such probability on the basis of the data obtained in all studied systems allows to resolve an issue of O. of page most objectively.
Abroad for an exception of paternity use also racial signs, data of portrait similarity, character of the feelings caused by nek-ry chemical substances at the child and the alleged father, polymorphism of nek-ry chromosomes on a teterokhromatina, etc. In the USSR these methods are not extended in communication of € by insufficient study, and also inconstancy and unreliability of the received results.
Bibliography: Tomilin V. V. and Smooth A. S. A medicolegal blood analysis in cases of a doubtful paternity, motherhood and replacement of children, M., 1981; Tumanov A. K. Bases of forensic medical examination of material evidences, page 230, M., 1975; T at m of An ov A. K. and Tomilin V. V. Hereditary polymorphism of isoantigens and enzymes of blood is normal also of pathology of the person, page 329, M., 1969; P of about - kop O. u. Gohler W. Die menschlichen Blutgruppen, Jena, 1976.
V. V. Tomilin.