DOMESTIC ANIMALS — group of species of the mammals and birds tamed by the person and divorced by him for satisfaction of economic and other requirements. Usually to. carry all tamed and cultivated animals including divorced and who are contained in bondage of pushnopromyslovy, laboratory and decorative animals. constantly live in the conditions of relative freedom both in places of settlements of the person, and far from them and at the same time do not leave it and are constantly subordinated to various forms of his activity that makes qualitative difference of. from all other groups of the tamed animals.
Process of taming of. lasted several millennia. By the end of the Neolithic 16 species of mammals and 6 bird species were cultivated. Originally taming and cultivation of. it was necessary for creation of caches; in the subsequent their began to part for other purposes. The uniform group of resulted., having important economic value thanks to universality of economic use.
promoted bystry resettlement of the people, education of nomad tribes, development of land transport, intertribal bonds. At last. were the first exchange collection and a basis of the first trade relations. There was broad, almost global resettlement of some views of., there were breeds which are well adapted for existence in various climatic conditions.
With development about-va requirements to productivity of raised. The intensive converting activity of the person directed to creation of more prolific and early breeds of began with the end of the Middle Ages. There were highly productive meat, milk, and also high-performance workers and office breeds of., on morfol, and to other signs considerably different from initial forms. At the heart of emergence of qualitatively new breeds of. process of adaptation to the conditions created by the person lay (e.g., to new sterns, to stall contents and limited pastures, to a yoke, a harness, etc.).
One views of. all the year round contain on pastures (sowing. deer, some breeds of sheep, horses, yaks, etc.), others make regular daily allowance or seasonal movements from settlements of pastures and back (large and small cattle, horses, camels). the third live preferential in settlements (pigs, poultry, dogs, cats).
To a lesser extent converting activity of the person concerned the types which are well adapted for existence in extreme conditions (a reindeer, a camel, a yak). Centuries-old experience on creation of breeds of. on a selection basis it is widely applied in the most various industries of livestock production (removal of decorative, sports, fur and trade and laboratory animals). Since the end of 18 century when E. Jenner of ohms safety smallpox inoculations, were created. began to be used for needs of medicine. Row D. is a basis of serumal production (a horse, sheep, donkeys). On many views of. researches in the field of infectious pathology are conducted (see. Laboratory animals ).
Some pharmaceuticals produce from various bodies and fabrics (drugs, phosphorated and iron), blood (hematogen, etc.), bile (Allocholum, Cholenzymum) of.; from hemadens prepare hormonal drugs (Pituitrinum, Adiurecrinum, Thyreoidinum, etc.), enzymatic drugs, etc. Milk and dairy products of. have dietary properties, and koumiss (milk of horses) is applied at treatment of tuberculosis, stomach diseases, etc. The need for mass supply of the population with livestock products led to creation of specialized productions.
Being in continuous contact with the person. are a source of infection of the person with dangerous infectious diseases (rage, a malignant anthrax, a foot-and-mouth disease, sap, etc.). In applied medicine of a disease, transferred to the person from animals, received the name of zoonoz, unlike antroponoz at which a source of infection is the person.
Around the world to a zoonosis carry not less than 150 nozol, forms. From this number apprx. 100 are found in.; at living in the territory of the USSR — 45 nozol, forms. However if to consider existence of separate serogroups, serotypes, ecotypes and other versions of activators, then they will appear many times more. The activators of zoonoz found in., treat all known types of infectious and invasive agents; bacteria and helminths prevail. Viral diseases of. are studied not enough.
Part of activators of zoonoz of. received from wild ancestors: from hoofed animals (a foot-and-mouth disease, sap, a brucellosis, a fascioliasis, a dicrocoeliosis, etc.) and from predatory mammals (rage, trichinosis, Echinococcosis, perhaps Toxoplasmosis and a visceral leushmaniosis), and also birds (ornithosis).
Many activators of zoonoz (a salmonella, a pasterella, a clostridium, listeriya, an erizipelotriksa, a bacillus of a malignant anthrax, a leptospira, a trikhofitona, a mikrosporona, an ankylostoma, a trikhostrongilida, etc.) are connected on the origin with soil, water or vegetable saprophytes (partial parasites) which were widely adopted in anthropogenous landscapes.
In practice of veterinary science it is accepted to allocate two groups of diseases — the diseases extended among many views of., and specific diseases of horses, ruminant, pigs, carnivorous and birds. Specific diseases reflect properties of the majority of parasitic forms in the nature — a confinedness to certain systematic or ekol, to groups of owners within group. Group eurysynusic among. diseases, to the Crimea the majority of zoonoz belongs, as if breaks the general patterns of bonds of parasites with owners (see. Parasitic system ). On the one hand, a considerable part of these activators partial parasites, with another — degree of a susceptibility and resistance to them at representatives of different groups and classes is various.
Birds are steady against infection with rage, a malignant anthrax, a foot-and-mouth disease; dogs, cats, horses and donkeys — to a nek-eye to diseases artiodactyl and seldom have pasteurellosis, tuberculosis, a pseudotuberculosis, a foot-and-mouth disease. At the same time all are susceptible to listeriosis, necrobacillosis, the Q fever, a toxoplasmosis of D.Zh. Vida or separate serotypes and other versions of activators in the specific centers are connected with population of the main carrier, life activity to-rogo provides steady preservation of the activator on the site of the center and exerts impact on all processes happening in the center including and on distribution of the activator among other animal species and the person. The main carriers among. cows, sheep, pigs, dogs and poultry are (see the tab.).
For the majority of the zoonotic infections connected with., their wide spread occurance on all continents and climatic zones is characteristic. In the specific centers they meet both on pastures, and in settlements and not always an opportunity to precisely define their landscape confinedness is represented. Continuous movement of. from settlements on pastures and back creates conditions for preservation and long circulation of activators in their populations. Dominant position of. in anthropogenous landscapes it is shown also concerning the natural centers of zoonotic diseases. Being the main prokormitel of adult phases of ixodic mites. exert impact on distribution and intensity of the centers of a tick-borne encephalitis and tick-borne rickettsiosis, the Omsk and Crimean hemorrhagic fevers, tularemias in which the main carriers of activators are mites, rodents and hares (see. Rodents ). At. these diseases meet seldom or are not found absolutely. exert impact on distribution of some species of rodents — inhabitants of pastures and by that on the centers of a number of diseases. Rooms for. are a shelter (constant or temporary), accumulation of a forage for blood-sicking arthropods — tanks of activators of a tick-borne spirochetosis (argasovy mites), the Q fever, a tick-borne sapropyra, the Marseilles fever (Ixodic mites), leyshmanioz (mosquitoes), and also rodents — sinantrop (a mouse and a rat) — the main carriers of leptospirosis, a lymphocytic choriomeningitis, flea and gamazovy rickettsioses, a pseudotuberculosis, salmonelloses, etc.
Role of. in emergence and maintenance of the specific centers of zoonotic diseases it is shown in various forms of a carriage of activators, and functionally main role belongs to views of., which dominate in the economic relation. Duality of mechanisms of adaptation — to an environment and to the conditions created by the person does not allow to distinguish accurately the natural (pasturable) and synanthropic (stall) centers of separate diseases.
The dominating role of. in maintenance of the centers of diseases most clearly it is shown where tanks and the main carriers of activators in the life activity depend on.; often, without being the carrier of causative agents of these diseases. at the same time determine distribution of the centers by the territory.
Long coexistence and close interrelation with the person define a leading role of. in epidemiology of zoonotic diseases. Studying of zoonoz showed that allocation of this group of diseases of the person only on a source of infection (from animals) is not always correct. In certain cases the person himself can become a source of infection of. — plague, tuberculosis of bull type, salmonellosises, toxoplasmosis, etc.; such diseases it is more correct to call antropozoonozam.
The person can catch the same disease from various. Ways of infection can also be various. So, e.g., the brucellosis, leptospirosis, a malignant anthrax can catch at direct contact with a sick animal, at consumption of raw milk or badly boiled thoroughly meat, at drink of water or bathing in contaminated by allocations. water sources, and also an aspiration way — on production during the processing of foodstuff and raw materials.
High number of. and their continuous movements create conditions for impurity (concentration of allocations) and dust content of the territory. Permanent deformation of a surface of the soil cover contaminated by allocations favors to spread of an infection in the aerogenic way. At last, infection out of primary centers as a result of mass transportations on long distances of products, raw materials and is possible. The escalating role of industrial production of livestock products creates special danger of infection with zoonotic diseases in the collectives processing and processing primary production of livestock production.
Measures of prevention provide in all cases strengthening of the general a dignity. - a gigabyte. mode, selective, and in places universal check of animals immunol, methods and separation of healthy animals from patients, and also systematic inspection of workers of livestock production and processing industries.
Table. A natural carriage of causative agents of diseases of the person domestic animals in the USSR
In the table presented aggregated data on a spontaneous carriage of causative agents of diseases of the person by domestic animals to the USSR and their epidemiological value.
For each look the information by origin, to distribution, economic use and value in medicine, and also names of diseases which activators are found in this look is supplied.
Bibliography: Bogolyubsky S. N. Origin and transformation of domestic animals, M., 1959; Darwin H. Compositions, t. 4, M. — L., 1951; L at to and-sh e in I. I. Private epizootology, M., 1961; Parasitology of the person, under the editorship of G. S. Pervomaysky and V. Ya. Podo-lyan, L., 1974, bibliogr.; Rudnev of G. P. Antropozoonoza, M., 1970; Tokarevich K. N. Zooantroponoza of professional character, L., 1969; The Epizootology, under the editorship of R. F. Sosov, M., 1974.
M. V. Shekhanov.